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The Seven Angels of Revelation 14

Query for the Month


November 2018

Next up-date: December 1st 2018 (God willing).

Previous "Queries" are available. Click here to access.


This article is available as a PDF file here.    Or as a WORD doc.

Some perpetual questions ....

Is there really an immortal soul?

Do you know the difference between the "love" that is of Christianity
and the "love" that is of the world?
Click here to find out!

Click on the link for a good book on the character of our God which you can download and share amongst your friends.   It's called "Light through Darkness" and is one of the best books on this subject that I have ever read! 

In the meantime, try this site.   


Here's another great site on the character of God written in a way that's very easy to understand.

In this reply the old-fashioned words of the KJV have been modernised, and in some instances, the man-made punctuation has been altered for greater understanding.  Some of the comments are adapted from books in my library.  No recognition is given because they are not intended as authorities, but are used because they express my understanding clearly.  All the ideas expressed in this article, right or wrong, are my own.   


When I look at Revelation chapter 14 I see six angels mentioned and not just three.   If we include the one we call the fourth which is described in Revelation 18, then there is a total of seven.   

Why don’t we hear anything about these others in our church studies?   

And why is the 4th separated from the other six?




I will share with you what I have learned from God’s word, but warn you that it is not necessarily all going to happen exactly as I see it today, for I am sure that there is greater light yet to come.

In these chapters the word “angel” denotes a loosely associated “group” of born-again humans, whose members join, leave, and die as time goes by, which we know of as “the spiritual church of God”.   The group remains constant even though the number of it is flexible and they are scattered throughout the world, some in the earthly church and some not.   It will finalise at 144,000 just before the Second Coming.

  {Early Writings 16.1}    [Published 1882]

Then Jesus' silver trumpet sounded, as He descended on the cloud, wrapped in flames of fire [at the Second Coming].   He gazed on the graves of the sleeping saints, then raised His eyes and hands to heaven, and cried, “Awake! awake! awake! ye that sleep in the dust, and arise.”

Then there was a mighty earthquake.   The graves opened, and the [righteous] dead came up clothed with immortality.   The 144,000 shouted, “Alleluia!” as they recognized their friends who had been torn from them by [a violent?] death, and in the same moment we were changed and caught up together with them to meet the Lord in the air.  {EW 16.1} 

We all entered the cloud together, and were seven days ascending to the sea of glass, when Jesus brought the crowns, and with His own right hand placed them on our heads.   He gave us harps of gold and palms of victory.   Here on the sea of glass the 144,000 stood in a perfect square [showing that the number is a literal one].   

[Soon we heard the voice of God like many waters, which gave us the day and hour of Jesus' coming. The living saints, 144,000 in number, knew and understood the voice, while the wicked thought it was thunder and an earthquake. {EW 14.1}]

Some of them had very bright crowns, others not so bright.   Some crowns appeared heavy with stars, while others had but few.   All were perfectly satisfied with their crowns.   And they were all clothed with a glorious white mantle from their shoulders to their feet.  {EW 16.2} 

  {Great Controversy 648.3}           [In the city in heaven]

Upon the crystal sea before the throne, that sea of glass as it were mingled with fire, -- so resplendent is it with the glory of God, -- are gathered the company that have “gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name.”

With the Lamb upon Mount Zion, “having the harps of God,” they stand, the hundred and forty and four thousand that were redeemed from among men; and there is heard, as the sound of many waters, and as the sound of a great thunder, “the voice of harpers harping with their harps.” And they sing “a new song” before the throne, a song which no man can learn save the hundred and forty and four thousand.   It is the song of Moses and the Lamb -- a song of deliverance.   None but the hundred and forty-four thousand can learn that song; for it is the song of their experience -- an experience such as no other company have ever had.   “These are they which follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth.”

These, having been translated from the earth, from among the living, are counted as “the first fruits unto God and to the Lamb.” Revelation 15:2, 3; 14:1-5.   “These are they which came out of great tribulation;” they have passed through the time of trouble such as never was since there was a nation; they have endured the anguish of the time of Jacob's trouble; they have stood without an intercessor through the final outpouring of God's judgments .  .  .  [See Great Controversy 636 to 647.]  [Let’s move on a bit]

  {Great Controversy 665.2}   [In the city on earth]

Nearest the throne are those who were once zealous in the cause of Satan, but who, plucked as brands from the burning, have followed their Saviour with deep, intense devotion.  [The 144,000] 

Next are those who perfected Christian characters in the midst of falsehood and infidelity, those who honored the law of God when the Christian world declared it void, [the Sabbath-keepers since 1846]

and the millions, of all ages, who were martyred for their faith.   

And beyond is the “great multitude, which no man could number, of all nations, and kindreds, and people, and tongues .  .  .  before the throne, and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, and palms in their hands.” Revelation 7:9.  [The general Christians of all ages.] 

Their warfare is ended, their victory won.   They have run the race and reached the prize.   The palm branch in their hands is a symbol of their triumph, the white robe an emblem of the spotless righteousness of Christ which now is theirs.  {GC 665.2}   

After John’s attention was directed away from the 144,000 singing their song of victory and praise to the LORD in verses 1-5 while the rest of the redeemed listen, he saw the seven angels bringing their individual messages as explanations of the last-day events.   Then he understood how they had obtained that victory.   Not until the 15th, 16th and 17th chapters of The Revelation have been fully comprehended can the fourth angel begin his cry, so we have to import him from the 18th chapter today. 

But first: 

In 1950 two Pastors (Robert J. Weiland and Donald K. Short) who were working in Africa and who loved the SDA church, attended the General Conference session as delegates and were horrified at what they heard and saw of the condition of the American branch of the church.

They wrote a whole series of letters to the General Conference leaders, one of which contained the following:

https://ancient-sda.com/short_history/short_2.html   Go to the 1956 heading

“Until we recognise the facts of our past more candidly, all our attempts to secure a supernatural display of spiritual 'power' proportionate to the promised latter rain, must be of necessity, doomed to failure.  There are two reasons for the necessity of this failure.

“1.  The true God has promised that He will not add His blessings to confusion, for His name and the cause of truth would not thereby be glorified.

“2.  The false 'god' of the modern religious world is powerless to make final and effective use of the advantages gained by him already in his efforts to fasten the remnant church in his relentless grasp.  He cannot bestow a supernatural 'power' upon the Seventh-Day Adventist church as a whole, as he is doing with other religious bodies, because of the presence within Israel of many thousands who have not bowed the knee to Baal.  Even he cannot add his supernatural 'blessings' to a divided people, halting between two opinions! The residual strength of the honest in heart who still constitute a great proportion of modern Israel, renders impotent Baal's final attempt to subjugate the Israel of God.

“The next step will obviously be for Israel to take stock of her position, and decide to follow - in the sense of utter devotion — one LORD or the other.

“The implications of such a step are staggering to contemplate”.  Page 5 See appendix F 2nd time

When their message of warning was rejected by the leaders of the church they went back to Africa to continue their work amongst those who looked for salvation, leaving the issue in God’s hands.  (Their correspondence was soon published to the whole church, but nothing has changed since then.   It was soon after this that the book Questions on Doctrine was published.)

With all that in mind, here are the query texts with a few additions:

    Revelation 14:

[Preaching the everlasting gospel of the new birth]

6 And I saw another angel [the first of seven, beginning about 1833] fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach to them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people, 7 saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to Him; for the hour of His judgment is come: and worship Him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters [the Creator].   

It was a revival of the age-old gospel of the new beginning (rebirth) for Christians, with the addition of the warning of the commencement of the judgment which was a dated caution.   At that time the professed Christian denominations were accepting the Theory of Evolution which does not require a Creator, so the LORD sent a counteracting message!

The angel’s main gospel is called “everlasting” because there are other localised gospels given for various generations and times during the demonstration of redemption, but this one spans from the Garden of Eden to the end of time so is always “present truth”.   As Elihu told Job, the true messengers of God are few and far between (although there are many professors), and the Son of God uses them as they make themselves available.   “If there be a messenger with him [a sick person], an interpreter [of the Scriptures], one among a thousand, to show to man His uprightness: then He is gracious to him, and says, [Try to] Deliver him from going down to the pit: [tell him] I have found a Ransom”.  Job 33:23-24.

[But God is limited in His choice of times for local gospels]

(Review and Herald Oct13, 1904).

The fourteenth chapter of Revelation is a chapter of the deepest interest.  This scripture will soon be understood [written in 1904] in all its bearings, and the messages given to John the revelator will be repeated with distinct [clearer] utterance [See Revelation 10:11].  {7BC 978.10}

(Letter 79, 1900)

Christ is coming the second time, with power unto salvation.  To prepare human beings for this event, He has sent the first, second, and third angels' messages.  These angels represent those [humans] who receive the truth, and with power open the gospel to the world.  {7BC 978.11} 

As mentioned above, the church’s population will necessarily adjust as time goes by, and some die at their posts due to the prolonged time taken to completely understand their messages.   Another point to notice is that once a message is given it continues to be needed and preached as the others are added, thus reaching up to a crescendo, after which (if it is rejected or neglected) they all fade away into the background.   

So then a second warning was presented.

[Describing the discovery of the fall of professed Christian world]

8 And there followed another angel [number two, in 1843], saying, Babylon [not Great Babylon, but one of its daughters, the Protestant branch in the USA] is fallen [not “just fallen” or “going to” fall, but], is fallen [it is the last “suburb” to be seen as a part of] that great [counterfeit] city, because she made all nations drink of the wine of the wrath of her fornication.  [This has an implication that there needed to be a change in thinking about it, something that has not happened in the SDA church.]

It has fooled all the world.   Other “suburbs” such as Heathenism and Paganism and Spiritualism have deceived some over the centuries, and are still doing so, but this is Satan’s religious masterpiece.   It has NEVER been a Christian system (nations are Satan’s invention), as the individual states prove with their religious laws.  Well-meaning men have not understood that this “beast” is not from God [for there cannot be a “Christian” nation!!]  Revelation 13:11.

The Spirit’s message to the Pilgrims who founded it (which was rejected) was: 

    Revelation 3:

1 And to the angel of the church in Sardis [from 1517 to 1833] write; These things says He that has the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars;         I know your works, that you have a name [among men] that you live, and are dead [in My sight]

2 Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that are ready to die: for I have not found your works perfect before God.  3 Remember therefore HOW [and what] you have received and heard, and hold fast, and repent.   If therefore you shall not watch, I will come on you as a thief, and you shall not know what hour I will come upon you.  [The end of their time to repent came on Oct 22, 1844 when they rejected all three of the messages]

4 You have a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and they shall walk with Me in white: for they are worthy. 

5 He that overcomes [himself], the same shall be clothed in white raiment [My righteousness]; and I will not blot out his name out of the Book of Life, but I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels.   

6 He that has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the churches. 

Back in our query chapter we have these words:

[Don’t continue in their way, but accept the seventh-day Sabbath]

9 And the third angel followed them [in 1846], saying with a loud voice,

If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark [of Sunday-keeping – first-day worship] in his forehead [in deliberate belief], or in his hand [for expediency], 10 the same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, which is poured out without mixture into the cup of His indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb.  [That audience will have to watch helplessly as the rebels suffer as a result of their own actions.]

11 And the smoke of their torment ascends up for ever and ever [for as long as they last]: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whoever receives the mark of his name [the sign of their character].   

The word description, “beast” (with or without seven heads, sometimes with horns), is used as the sign of all and any of the worldly governments and the individual nations which come and go as its agents, such as in Daniel chapters 2 and 7 where we have metals and then animals as codes for them, but “the beast” as their host has remained constant since the days of Nimrod, the son of Cush.   See Genesis 10:8-12 and compare Daniel 12:1 which mentions its start. 

The “image”, or copy of the 5th head is the eighth head, one which is only mentioned in The Revelation chapter 17:11.   

The “mark of the beast” is commonly manifested by the governments of the nations (egged on by the woman on their backs) when they compel people to worship their way, notably accepting Sunday as the day of veneration, but their theme has varied over the centuries.  [See note 2.] 

[The fate of the saints]

12 Here is the patience of the saints [required because of the continued delay]: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of [not in] Jesus.  13 And I heard a voice from heaven saying to me, Write, Blessed are the dead which die in the LORD from henceforth [from 1846 onwards]: Yes, says the Spirit, that they may rest from their labours; and [the record of] their works do follow [goes with] them.   

        {Early Writings 254.1}

The third angel closes his message thus: “Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.” As he repeated these words, he pointed to the heavenly sanctuary.   The minds of all who embrace this message are directed to the most holy place, where Jesus stands before the ark, making His final intercession for all those for whom mercy still lingers and for those who have ignorantly broken the law of God [so that they can understand more completely His mission]

This atonement is made for [all] the righteous dead as well as for the righteous living.   

It includes all who died trusting in Christ, but who, not having received the light upon God's commandments, had sinned ignorantly in transgressing its precepts [the Sunday-keepers and no-day keepers of old].  {EW 254.1}

This is, of course, explained more fully in Leviticus chapter 16 and Daniel 8:14 (especially the Day of Atonement symbolism).

Just before the Second Coming we are told of a special resurrection:

  {The Faith I Live By 182.4}   [See Great Controversy 637.1] 

Graves are opened, and “many [but not all] of them that sleep in the dust of the earth .  .  .  awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt [two groups].” Daniel 12:2.   

All who have died in the faith of the third angel's message [since 1846] come forth from the tomb glorified, to hear God's covenant of peace with those who [are still alive and] have kept His law.  {FLB 182.4}  [See also Great Controversy 637.]

[She repeats] Those who had died in faith under the third angel's message, keeping the Sabbath, came forth from their dusty beds.  {FLB 182.5}  

“They also which pierced him” (Revelation 1:7), those that mocked and derided Christ's dying agonies, and the most violent opposers of His truth and His people, are [also] raised to behold Him in His glory, and to see the honor placed upon the loyal and obedient [as He proclaims His Ten Commandments] .  .  .  {FLB 182.6}

The voice of God is [also] heard from heaven, declaring the day and hour of Jesus' coming [before it happens], and delivering the everlasting covenant to His people .  .  .  And when the blessing is pronounced on those who have honored God by keeping His Sabbath holy, there is a mighty shout of victory.  {FLB 182.7}     


But, before that can come about, we need to add the 4th angel, sometimes called the “loud cry” of the third angel.]

    Revelation 18:

1 And after these things I saw another angel [the fourth, future date unknown] come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory. 

2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great [the threefold union, Revelation 16:19 of Protestantism, Catholicism and Spiritualism] is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird. 3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed [spiritual] fornication with her [the unions of church and state], and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.   

[The Spirit speaks]

4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, My people, that you be not partakers of her sins, and that you receive not of her plagues.  5 For her sins have reached to heaven, and God has remembered her iniquities.

 6 Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double to her double according to her works: in the cup which she has filled fill to her double.   7 How much she has glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her [by showing her faith and love in equalising amounts]: for she says in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.

8 Therefore shall her plagues [the last three of the seven of Revelation 16] come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the LORD God who judges her. 

[Then, back in Revelation 14 Christ arrives out in space, and waits:]

***************(Begin Quote)

Revelation 14:

14 And I looked, and behold a white cloud [in the sky], and upon the cloud one sat like to the Son of man, having on His head a golden crown, and in His hand a sharp sickle.   

[The people of God speak]

15 And another angel [the fifth group of humans, date unknown] came out of the [spiritual] temple [sanctuary], crying with a loud voice to Him that sat on the cloud, Thrust in Your sickle, and reap: for the time is come for You to reap; for the harvest of the earth is ripe.  16 And He that sat on the cloud thrust in His sickle on the earth; and the earth was reaped [by the first resurrection.  And they all go back to heaven.].         

[The “temple” represents their state of mind –

the harmony they have with the Son of God.]

[Time goes by, and 1,000 years later]

17 And another angel [the sixth, not Christ this time] came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle [the power of a resurrection (through the Son of God), for it will require their desire for this to occur]

[It will also need the request of some others of the people] 

18 And another angel [the seventh, the final group of humans] came out from the altar [of prayer, for there is no altar of sacrifice in heaven.  That is shown by the marks in His hands], which had power over fire [they had overcome the pain of the unjust persecution, consider Revelation 6:9-11; 12:11]; and cried with a loud cry to him that had the sharp sickle, saying, Thrust in your sharp sickle, and gather the clusters of the vine of the earth; for her grapes are fully ripe [overripe]

19 And the [sixth] angel thrust in his sickle into the earth, and gathered the vine of the earth, and cast it into the great winepress of the wrath of God. 

20 And the winepress [described in another place as the Lake of Fire] was trodden without [just outside] the city, and blood came out of the winepress, even to the horse bridles [a varying height], by the space of a thousand and six hundred furlongs [about 200 miles, or 322 kilometres long.   This illustrates the extent of the carnage].   

All this requires training and acceptance, so we must learn to co-operate with God now while there is time, lest we die the first death before it can happen.   

    Hebrews 3:

7Wherefore (as the Holy Ghost says, Today if you will hear His voice,

8 Harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness: 9 when your fathers tempted Me, proved Me, and saw My works forty years.  10 Wherefore I was grieved with that generation, and said, They do always err in their heart; and they have not known [refused to know] My ways.  11 So I sware [confirmed] in My wrath, They shall not enter into My [Sabbath] rest.) .  .  .    

12 Take heed, brothers [and sisters], lest there be in any of you an evil heart of unbelief, in departing from the living God.  13 But exhort one another daily, while it is called Today; lest any of you be hardened through the deceitfulness of sin.  14 For we are made partakers of Christ, if we hold the beginning of our confidence steadfast to the end; 15 while it is said, Today if you will hear His voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation [for, as mentioned before, the Day of Opportunity eventually passes].     

    Hebrews 4:

7 Again, He limits a certain day [or period], saying in [through] David, Today, after so long a time [Psalm 95:6-11]; as it is said, Today if you will hear His voice, harden not your hearts8 For if Jesus [Joshua, margin] had given them [Sabbath] rest [after they entered the Promised Land], then He [God] would not afterward have spoken of another day.   

“So long a time” refers to the sad fact that it takes about ten (but not exactly) generations to recover the lost ground once a finalising message has been rejected!  (It is God’s desire that it come more often, but it takes humanity a long time to accept any person or message which is radically different.  Consider Deuteronomy 23:1-3.)

This is illustrated when Gabriel came to give his message to Daniel:

    Daniel 9:

23 At the beginning of your supplications the commandment came forth, and I am come to show you; for you are greatly beloved: therefore understand the matter, and consider the vision [of chapter 8]

24 Seventy weeks [490 years] are determined upon [or set aside for] your people and upon your holy city,

to finish the transgression,

and to make an end of sins,


and to make reconciliation for iniquity,

and to bring in everlasting righteousness,


and to seal up the vision and prophecy,

and to anoint the most Holy.    

25 Know therefore and understand, that from the going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem to the Messiah the Prince shall be seven weeks [49 years], and threescore and two weeks [434 years]: the street shall be built again, and the wall, even in troublous times [See the book of Nehemiah]

[From 457BC to 27AD (69 weeks) is a total of 483 years.  27AD to 34AD (the stoning of Stephen) completes the 70 weeks.]  

Here is a very rough picture of how it has been, with the times as round figure indicators only, for God’s generations of spiritual overcomers come on the scene in very different spaces of time.   Consider, for instance, that Seth (who was not the first-born) was delivered when Adam was about 130 years old, and Seth’s son Enos came 105 years later.  Enos’ son, Cainaan, was 90 years further on, and then Enos’ grandson, Mahalaleel, 70 years after that.  Jared, the next in line, came at Mahalaleel’s 65 years, and Jared’s son was Enoch (of translation fame) who was born when his father was 162.   

Methuselah, the long-lived one, the next in the spiritual line was born when Enoch was 65, and he produced Lamech when he was 187!  Then came Noah in Lamech’s 182nd year and he was 600 years old when the Flood disaster happened and he had already had three sons, and it was after that event that Cush begat Nimrod who became the founder of the nations in place of God’s family groups, called tribes.   See Genesis chapter 5.   (They were not necessarily first-borns, but are the ones who carried on the birthright.)

So from Adam to Noah was about 1,500 years, and to Abraham was about another 500 years.   The family then went into Egypt and from then to Moses was yet another 500.   At the end of that period, Saul set up the kingdom around 1,000BC which lasted to 536BC when they went into Babylonian captivity.   (Dates in the Bible are often disputed by scholars so we don’t argue about them.) 

It was about 500 years after the return from exile that Christ arrived and set up the Christian era in place of the Jewish system.  Another 500 saw the falling away and the rise of the Papacy.   In 1066 the Roman Catholic nation of Normandy under William the Conqueror invaded the then Protestant land of England, and the rest, as it is said, is history.   1500AD saw the rise again of Protest in Germany under Luther, and so here we are today! (I remind you, this is a very loose pattern!)


The seven angels’ messages show us what the Spirit of God expects from His church during and after the final days of the Christian era, for the 1,000 years is a part of the Day of Atonement. 

There are other ceremonies which follow the placing of the sins upon the head of the scapegoat.   See Leviticus 16:23-25; and consider Ezekiel 36:24-25 where it is written: “For I will take you from among the heathen, and gather you out of all countries, and will bring you into your own land [in the resurrection].   Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and you shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you.   See note 1.

All the universe, but particularly the redeemed who were killed for their faith and died without forgiving their persecutors, will need to see for themselves the total rejection of Life by the rebels as they rush into the Lake of Fire, and so they ask for the second resurrection, because they now want to forgive them.   (But a good deed leads to a sad end, for to give light and mercy is to create the opportunity for darkness, and the martyrs will need to be cleansed from that!  See Isaiah 45:7.)


Who wants to add (or subtract!) from these thoughts? I won't argue as I have stated, but I will publish your Scriptures so that we may review all the words of God on the subject.   Some of the comments on this page are adapted from books in my library.   Recognition is not always given because they are not intended as authorities, but are used because they express my understanding clearly.

Next query.  To be discussed from 1st December 2018


Why can’t I, as a Christian, heal all the sicknesses and old age diseases that I see amongst the people I work with?  I read a book recently that seems to promise that if I align myself with Spirit then I will be able to.

And in conjunction with that:

Someone gave us a list of the apostles, and how they died, I know they killed people in terrible ways in those days, and there was no exception for the apostles, mostly because they were preaching and for their faith. That is a real puzzle, I mean [if] these men were the apostles [chosen ones?], and Christian, [and] they could not be protected, what hope do we have.


For contact:

mail to:  nonconformist@mail.com  (Copy and paste if necessary)


To see the list of some of my past queries, click here.

To see past queries and my responses, click here.



Note 1

One of our early pioneers, Owen Crosier, wrote the first beginnings of this light in 1846.


We have seen that the Dispensation following the Gospel Dispensation is a day of cleansing.   Even after the Lord has taken his people from among the heathen and gathered them out of all countries into their own land, which is evidently the same as bringing them up out of their graves into the land of Israel.  “Then, (after the resurrection and they are brought into [heaven, and later into] their own land, [the new world]) will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean;” [Ezekiel] 36:24, 25. 

To cleanse the people, that they might be clean from all their sins “before the Lord” was the object of the atonement of the tenth day of the seventh month under the law; Leviticus 16:30.  The evidence is satisfactory to my mind that that day is the type of the Dispensation of the fulness of times, the age to come [and we now know that it started in 1844]

What! are we to be sinful and unclean when immortal?

Let us “be patient.” “The righteous shall not make haste.”- The Lord says he will sprinkle them with clean water and cleanse them thereby after he has gathered them into their own land.  Whether the sprinkling of water is literal or figurative, it shows that he will perform a cleansing process upon them. 

Blood and water issued from our Saviour's side.  Objects under the law were cleansed by blood and water; and we have already seen that if those objects were physically unclean, as by the leprosy or any thing else, all such uncleanness had to be removed in preparation for the [final] cleansing

The atonement was made for the object with blood or blood and water, and the atonement cleansed them. 

So our Saviour after he had cleansed the leper of his disease commanded him to go and offer [two birds] for his cleansing; Mark 1:41-44.  [Numbers 14.]  So the people were themselves freed from their sins by the atonement previously made for them individually in the Holy, to prepare them for the yearly cleansing. 

From this it is manifest that the whole house of Israel will need to have their sins forgiven and their vile bodies [and minds] changed to fit them for the cleansing spoken of; Ezekiel 36:25.   

The cleansing of the Sanctuary did not finish the cleansing for the people; for, after the Scape-goat had borne away all the iniquities of the people, the high priest had yet to offer the burnt-offerings [of dedication] and burn the fat of the sin-offerings on the altar in the court, which formed a part of the atonement of the day; and it required the whole atonement of that day to cleanse the people; Leviticus 16:22-30. 


P. S. Sprinkling is used in the ceremony of the red heifer (Numbers 19, which denotes the cleansing of people, things and places from the effects of death).   BACK     See

                           https://ancient-sda.com/red_heifer_nov_16.html   for more detail.



Note 2:   [My emphasis]

{March 1888 ATJ [A T Jones], AMS [American Sentinel Articles] 20.1}

ALONGSIDE of the statements of the Elgin Sunday-law Convention, given in a foregoing article, we desire to place some facts of history which reveal a threatening danger that the American people do not dream of.   By this we intend to show that it was in this same way precisely that the union of Church and State was formed in the fourth century, out of which grew the Papacy in its highest pretensions.   There is no need of much argument; all we shall have to do is to quote the history, and the parallel can be so plainly seen that argument is unnecessary.  {March 1888 ATJ, AMS 20.1}

Neander says of the fourth century:— {March 1888 ATJ, AMS 20.2}

“As is evident from the synodal laws[1] of the fourth century, worldly-minded bishops, instead of caring for the salvation of their flocks, were often but too much inclined to travel about, and entangle themselves in worldly concerns.”—Church History, Vol. 2, page 16.   Torrey's Edition, Boston, 1857.  {March 1888 ATJ, AMS 20.3}

So it is now with these Sunday-law preachers, in their working up of religio-political conventions, and their lobbying almost every Legislature in the land.   But what was the purpose of these worldly-minded bishops in entangling themselves in worldly concerns?   

Neander tells:— {March 1888 ATJ, AMS 20.4}

“This theocratical [supposedly God-led] theory [of a physical Christian church on earth controlling the nations] was already the prevailing one in the time of Constantine; and .   .   .   the bishops voluntarily made themselves dependent on him by their disputes, and by their determination to make use of the power of the State for the furtherance of their own aims.”—Id., p. 132.  {March 1888 ATJ, AMS 20.5}

What then were their aims? Their first and greatest aim was the exaltation of themselves; and second only to that was the exaltation of Sunday.   These two things had been their principal aims, and especially of the bishops of Rome, for more than a hundred years, when Constantine [in 321AD] gave them a chance to make their aims effectual by the power of the State.   [But] The first assertion of the arrogant pretensions of the bishop of Rome to power over the whole church, was made in behalf of Sunday by Victor, who was bishop of Rome from A.D.  193 to 202.  {March 1888 ATJ, AMS 20.6}

“He wrote an imperious [demanding] letter to the Asiatic prelates [Eastern bishops], commanding them to imitate the example of the western Christians with respect to the time of celebrating Easter [that is commanding them to celebrate it always on Sunday.   Emphasis by Jones].   The Asiatics answered this lordly requisition .   .   .   with great spirit and resolution, that they would by no means depart, in this manner, from the custom handed down to them by their ancestors.   Upon this the thunder of excommunication began to roar.   Victor, exasperated by this resolute answer of the Asiatic bishops, broke communion with them [the bishops], pronounced them unworthy of the name of his brethren, and excluded them from all fellowship with the Church of Rome.”—Mosheim, Church History, 2nd.   Century, part II, chap. V, par. 11.  {March 1888 ATJ, AMS 20.7}

For more on this split, see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East%E2%80%93West_Schism  And see note 3.

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


{April 17, 1900 ATJ [A T Jones], ARSH [Advent Review & Sabbath Herald articles] 248.12}

Another step in promoting the honor of the sun was taken, especially under the leadership of the church at Rome.   The early Christians celebrated the Passover, in remembrance of the death of Christ, the true Passover [Lamb].   Accordingly, they celebrated it on the fourteenth day of the first [Jewish] month.   Rome, however, and from her all the west, adopted Sunday as the day of this celebration.   

According to the original and the Eastern custom this celebration, being on the fourteenth day of the month, would, of course, fall upon different days of the week, as the years revolved.   But the rule of Rome was that the celebration must always be on a Sunday—the Sunday nearest to the fourteenth day of the first month of the Jewish year.   And if that fourteenth day of the month were itself a Sunday, then the celebration was not to be held on that day; but upon the next Sunday.   And this is why it is that, to this day, Easter, even though celebrated always on Sunday, is so very variable in its recurrence,—sometimes in March, sometimes early in April, sometimes late in April,—but always the first Sunday after the first full moon after the twentieth of March, or the spring equinox.  {April 17, 1900 ATJ, ARSH 248.12}

Indeed, this very item of Easter itself illustrated this gathering of a host to the man of sin, by reason of transgression.  [See Daniel 8:12.]  The word “Easter” is peculiar to the English language, and to the British Isles.   “It is derived from Eostre, or Ostára, the Anglo-Saxon goddess of spring, to whom the fourth month, answering to our April—thence called Eostur-monath—was dedicated.” The heathen in Britain were celebrating in early spring this festival of their goddess Eostre, when the agents of Rome first entered Britain; and by them this name of the heathen goddess was adopted, with the festival in her honor; and the whole ceremony thus adopted was carried on as the celebration of the so-called Christian Passover.   

And, says the Venerable Bede: “The old festival was observed with the gladness of a new solemnity.”

The word “Easter” in Acts 12:4 is not a translation, but a sheer insertion by the translators; as the Greek is pascha, meaning “Passover.” {April 17, 1900 ATJ, ARSH 248.13}

Another item worth noticing, in this connection, is that this Eostre, or Ostára, of the ancient Britons, is identical with the Ishtar, or Astarte, of Babylon and Nineveh, and the Ashtaroth of the Phœnicians.   She was the female of Bel in Babylon and Nineveh, and of Baal in Phœnicia; and represented the female element in sun worship.  {April 17, 1900 ATJ, ARSH 248.14}  BACK



Note 3: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East%E2%80%93West_Schism#Separation_of_the_West_from_the_Roman_Empire


Separation of the West from the Roman Empire

See also: Fall of the Western Roman Empire

In 476, when the last emperor of the western part of the Roman Empire was deposed and the western imperial insignia were sent to Constantinople, there was once again a single Roman Emperor.  However, he had little power in the West, which was ruled almost entirely by various Germanic tribes.  In the opinion of Randall R.  Cloud, the permanent separation of the Greek East from the Latin West was “the fundamental reason for the estrangement that soon followed between the Greek and the Latin Christians”.[84]


The dominant language of the West was Latin, while that of the East was Greek.  Soon after the fall of the West to invaders, the number of individuals who spoke both languages dwindled, and communication between East and West grew much more difficult.  With linguistic unity gone, cultural unity began to crumble as well.  The two halves of the Church were naturally divided along similar lines; they developed different rites and had different approaches to religious doctrines.  Although the schism was still centuries away, its outlines were already perceptible.[85]


In the areas under his control, Justinian I established caesaropapism[2] as the constitution of the Church in a scheme according to which the emperor “had the right and duty of regulating by his laws the minutest detail of worship and discipline, and also of dictating the theological opinions to be held in the Church”.[86]


According to the Westminster Dictionary of Theological Terms, this caesaropapism was “a source of contention between Rome and Constantinople that led to the schism of 1054”.[87]


Explicit approval of the emperor in Constantinople was required for consecration of bishops within the empire.  During the period called the Byzantine Papacy, this applied to the bishops of Rome, most of whom were of Greek or Syrian origin.  Resentment in the West against the Byzantine emperor's governance of the Church is shown as far back as the 6th century, when “the tolerance of the Arian Gothic king was preferred to the caesaropapist claims of Constantinople”.[88] The origins of the distinct attitudes in West and East are sometimes traced back even to Augustine of Hippo, who “saw the relationship between church and state as one of tension between the 'city of God' and the 'city of the world'“, and Eusebius, who “saw the state as the protector of the church and the emperor as God's vicar on earth”.[89]       BACK



[1] A synod (/ˈsɪnəd/) is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synod  (The equivalent is our General Conference in session.)


[2] A church and state combination with the head of the state ruling, as in the United Kingdom.



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