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Notes for

Daniel Chapter Eleven

in two parts

Section 2

11. However, wars were soon resumed by Philip in Macedonia and Antiochus in Syria and the Romans had to intervene again. Attulus of Pergamos also sent again to Rome for help in 198BC. After a period Philip was defeated and the Roman senate announced at the Isthmian games in 196BC that they would set at liberty all those whom he had conquered. The announcer had to repeat the words twice before the astounded public realised what had happened. Then it is recorded that:

"Every one cried in the highest transports of admiration, and a kind of of enthusiasm, 'that there was a people in the world who, at their own expense and the hazard of their lives, engaged in a war for the liberty of other nations; and that NOT for their neighbours or people situated on the same continent; but who crossed seas and sailed to distant climes to destroy and extirpate [annihilate] unjust power from the earth, and to establish universally law, equity, and justice'."

From that time on, right up to the reign of Constantine, other nations confided in the Romans and requested help from them as many do today from the United States of America. They had become the leading power in the world by consent!

[For more on this thought see Arnold Toynbee's Study of History, The Roman Peace].

Back to our history:-

Antiochus, however, carried on with his ideas of world conquest and crossed into Europe which gave the Roman power the opportunity of stopping him. Before they could, Antiochus sailed for Egypt at the news that Ptolemy was dead, hoping to gain it for himself. In 193BC his daughter married the new Egyptian king, and in 191BC Antiochus returned to Greece where he was thoroughly defeated by the Romans. They then invaded Asia and the rest is history, as they say. Suffice to say that by the year 187BC Antiochus was forced to submit and the Roman power took over his position in the world of politics and became the king of the north. The protection of the Roman community eventually covered all the states from the eastern to the western end of the Mediterranean.

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12. Romans and Jews signed a peace alliance in 161BC, but in 63BC Pompey of Rome actually took over the country by force because of a dispute between two competitors, sons of the high priest, as to who should be king of Israel.

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13. At this time Egypt was all that remained of the "whole kingdom" of Alexander which had not been brought directly under Roman dominion.

Ptolemy Auletes died in 51BC and left his throne jointly to his eldest daughter Cleopatra and his eldest son, a lad about ten years old. Because they were both young, the Romans again took over guardianship and appointed Pompey as the regent. Soon an argument between Pompey and Julius Caesar brought Caesar into Egypt where he found that Cleopatra and her brother were not getting on. The young Ptolemy caused Pompey to be killed, and Caesar called both brother and sister before him to judge their behaviour. Caesar, fifty-two years old, fell in love with the twenty-two year old girl immediately, but judged that they should rule jointly according to their father’s will. Open rebellion soon followed and Ptolemy’s army was defeated by a combined army of Romans and Jews (under Antipater the Idumean), after which Rome took over Egypt completely.

Cleopatra, the mother of Julius Caesar’s son, later joined Anthony, the enemy of Augustus Caesar, and put her whole power against Rome.

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14. When Julius Caesar returned to Rome he was made dictator for life. This did not please everyone and he was eventually assassinated by his friend Brutus and others. He stumbled and fell in 44BC.

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15. Luke 2:1-7 This was about 4BC. Those who calculated the date of Christ’s birth made a mistake!

And it came to pass in those days, that there went out a decree from Caesar Augustus, that all the world should be taxed. (And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of Syria.) And all went to be taxed, every one into his own city.

And Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judaea, unto the city of David, which is called Bethlehem; (because he was of the house and lineage of David:) to be taxed with Mary his espoused wife, being great with child.

And so it was, that, while they were there, the days were accomplished that she should be delivered. And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped Him in swaddling clothes, and laid Him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn.

Octavius succeeded his uncle Julius and he was given the title Augustus by the senate. It was during his reign, the "Augustan Age", and after, that the "peace" of Rome was extended. He died of old age in bed in 14AD, a most unusual end for a ruler in those days!

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16. Luke 3:1-4 The call and baptism of Jesus at the beginning of the 70th "week"

Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came to John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness [April 27AD].

And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins; as it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare you the way of the Lord, make His paths straight.

As Augustus neared death he nominated Agrippa as his successor but he died and so Augustus’ stepson Tiberius became the next emperor. He reigned with Augustus as co-emperor from 12AD till Augustus’ death in 14AD. Tiberius himself died in 37AD. Thus he was the ruling monarch when Christ was crucified in 31AD. Of his character we do not need to speak – God has summed it all up in one word, "vile". We are told that with characteristic cunning he declined the offer of sovereignty with sham modesty until repeatedly solicited by the senate. It was in his fifteenth year that God raised up John the Baptist to announce the coming of the LORD.

Luke 3:21-23 The baptism in October 27AD

Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, and the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon Him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, You are My beloved Son; in You I am well pleased.

And Jesus Himself began to be about thirty years of age [October 27AD], being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli... The workers in the temple normally began to officiate when they were thirty years old. Numbers 4:3.

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17. Daniel 8:24-25 The power behind the power is crafty - more subtle than any other

And his power shall be mighty, but not by his own power: and he shall destroy wonderfully, and shall prosper, and practise, and shall destroy the mighty and the holy people. And through his policy also he shall cause craft to prosper in his hand; and he shall magnify himself in his heart, and by peace shall destroy many: he shall also stand up against the Prince of princes; but he shall be broken without hand.

This way of conquering was so well received that some nations were willed to Rome by their kings. One of these was Attalus III of Pergamos, who in 133BC left his kingdom to the Roman Republic. In the city there was a massive altar to Zeus which is still a wonder today a hundred years since it was excavated. It was also the site of a large (religious) school of medicine and a hospital which trained doctors from all over the world. I believe it was here that the medical symbol of the wand with two entwined serpents originated. As we have seen, God called it the place where "Satan’s seat is", (Revelation 2:13) and in the gifting of the kingdom began the gradual transfer from Pergamos to Rome of that throne.

The senate of Rome had from the beginning exhibited a peaceful aspect to the world, entering into conflicts only when apparently forced to do so for the good of others. They even offered to be conciliators in case of national disputes, inviting them to come to them or sending ambassadors to work on the spot. However, as time went by they showed their true character by summoning instead of requesting, and issuing decrees which were binding on the world's nationals. There eventually arose in the Roman senate, a tribunal which judged all nations and kings, from which there was no appeal. Does any of this sound familar in today's news?

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18. Verses 23 to 27 pose a problem for interpretation.

As we have seen, a "time" is another way of saying "a year". Some commentators on the verses think that this "time" is meant to be a prophetic year of 360 days which would make it a time prophecy of 360 day/years. There appears to be no detail regarding such a prophecy except the words in verses 27 and 29.

"yet the end shall be at the time appointed."

"At the time appointed he shall return".

One commentator believes that the verses take us back to the time when the league was made with the Jewish nation in 161BC. He then goes on to say that the verses describe the religious movements since that date, and that the beginning of the "time" was in 31BC when Anthony and Cleopatra were defeated by Augustus and the king of the south became wholly Rome's. He places its end in 330AD when the capital of the Roman empire was moved by Constantine from Rome to Constantinople (now called Istanbul) in modern-day Turkey . This effectively divided the empire into two sections, east and west (Latin and Greek) and gave the bishop of Rome the opportunity to make himself the leader in the city of Rome. [See map for the division of the empire.]

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19. Matthew 24:15-16 Not one Christian perished in the destruction of Jerusalem

When you therefore shall see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place [surrounding the city of Jerusalem], (whoso reads, let him understand:) then let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains:

Luke 21:20-22 The "abomination" was the Roman armies

And when you shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them which are in Judea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of it depart out; and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto. For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled.

It was in this period that Jerusalem (the city of the holy covenant) was attacked by the king of the north because of the Jewish rebellion against Roman rule, and the city and sanctuary were destroyed by its armies in the year 70AD. The Jewish people were scattered all over the world and did not return to Israel as a nation until 1948. The temple has never been rebuilt since its destruction and today a particularly important Arab mosque stands on its site.

The Christians, forewarned by the word of God, escaped the dispersion and continued their work of spreading the message of the gospel.

Acts 18:1-2 Jews and Christians were all the same to Romans

After these things Paul departed from Athens, and came to Corinth; and found a certain Jew named Aquila, born in Pontus, lately come from Italy, with his wife Priscilla; (because that Claudius had commanded all Jews to depart from Rome:) and came to them.

Acts 18:14-16 Judaism was a religion recognised by Rome as no threat to them

And when Paul was now about to open his mouth, Gallio said to the Jews, If it were a matter of wrong or wicked lewdness, O you Jews, reason would that I should bear with you: but if it be a question of words and names, and of your law, look you to it; for I will be no judge of such matters. And he drove them from the judgment seat.

Up until this time the Christians had been considered as Jews by the Romans and no persecution fell on them from the state. But when the message of Christianity spread widely amongst the Gentile Roman world a clear distinction was made between the Christians and the Jews by all parties. It then appeared as a new religion not recognised by Roman law, and was logically persecuted.

John 18:36 The kingdom of heaven is not a political entity

Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if My kingdom were of this world, then would My servants fight that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is My kingdom not from here.

This exchange of loyalties was seen by Rome as treachery and the Christians were accordingly treated as traitors in the centuries that followed.

This was so because in Rome the state was the god and it believed in absolute tyranny or control of the individuals who made up the nation. Those who rebelled were expected to commit suicide or be executed. Thus the political system instituted soon after the Flood reached its peak at this time and patriotism was considered the highest virtue.

For more on this in greater detail see "Opposing Principles"

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20. Daniel 2:40 Now comes the "other" leg of iron - papal Rome [a church/state]

And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron: forasmuch as iron breaks in pieces and subdues all things: and as iron that breaks all these, shall it break in pieces and bruise.

Exodus 5:2 The voice of atheism remains in the east

And Pharaoh said, Who is the LORD, that I should obey His voice to let Israel go? I know not the LORD, neither will I let Israel go.

In 330AD the empire was divided into east and west and what soon emerged in the west was a union of church and state. The bishop of Rome was now seen as the strong man of the city, and at the request of the inhabitants he fought against those who opposed his will, uprooting three nations as described in chapter seven. It was he who forsook (left) the "holy covenant" by agreeing to a sinful union into politics. This was a mixing of "iron and clay" for it has happened before and will again.

Isaiah 8:12-14 This is where their trust should have been

Say you not, A confederacy [or union], to all them to whom this people shall say, A confederacy [is what we need]; neither fear you their fear, nor be afraid. Sanctify the LORD of hosts Himself; and let Him be your fear, and let Him be your dread. And He shall be for [you] a sanctuary....

The "dark ages" now begin. "North" becomes antichrist (anti = in place of) and follows Baal openly by the use of force in religion, but calls him "Christ" and professes Christianity. "South" remains atheistic or follows other ideologies. For the next 1,260 years the king of the north has full control.

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21. Proverbs 6:16-19 An abomination is something that turns anyone away from the truth

These six things does the LORD hate: yes, seven are an abomination to Him:

A proud look,

a lying tongue,

and hands that shed innocent blood,

a heart that devises wicked imaginations,

feet that be swift in running to mischief,

a false witness that speaks lies,

and he that sows discord among brethren.

* * * * * * *

2 Thessalonians 2:1-4 The antichrist

Now we beseech you, brethren, by the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and by our gathering together to Him, that you be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letter as from us, as that the day of Christ is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition; who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sits in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.

The truth of the sanctuary in heaven was so completely cast down to the ground that since that time every church has become a sanctuary, the daily "mass" has replaced the daily or continual offering of Christ, His royal priesthood has become the title of faulty men and confession to a sinful man has taken the place of the private ear of Jesus. This has happened in part, if not in full, not only in the Roman Catholic system but in other professed Christian denominations as well!

1 John 1:5 – 1 John 2:2 Darkness is ignorance

This then is the message which we have heard of Him, and declare to you, that God is light, and in Him is no darkness at all. If we say that we have fellowship with Him, and walk in darkness, we lie, and do not the truth: but if we walk in the light, as He is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ His Son cleanses us from all sin. If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. If we confess our sins, He is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. If we say that we have not sinned, we make Him a liar, and His word is not in us.

My little children, these things write I to you, that you sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous: and He is the propitiation [the One who makes amends] for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for the sins of the whole world.

Acts 4:12 One Person only can forgive sins

Neither is there salvation in any other: for there is none other name under heaven given among men, whereby we must be saved.

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22. Isaiah 3:25 – 4:3 This "war" is a continuing one

Your men shall fall by the sword, and your mighty in the war....

In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellent and comely for them that are escaped of Israel. And it shall come to pass, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remains in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem...

Matthew 24:20-22 Jesus told the Christians of their problem

But pray you that your flight be not in the winter, neither on the Sabbath day: for then shall be great tribulation, such as was not since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And except those days should be shortened, there should no flesh be saved: but for the elect's sake those days shall be shortened.

The tribulation spoken of here was the persecution by pagan Rome during the first centuries of the Christian era. But it also has an application to the persecutions of the long night of sorrow from 538 to 1798. Prominent among those who withstood the activities of the antichrist during the second tribulation were the Waldenses, the Albigenses, and the Hugenots. They were all helped with a little help by Martin Luther and the people who became known as protest-ants because they protested that the church of the time was not a Christian church. But even among these mighty men there were those who would "cleave to them with flatteries", showing that the gospel had not reached all their hearts.

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22a Genesis 10:8-12 The rebel who did according to his will

And Cush begat [or was the father of] Nimrod: he began to be a mighty one in the earth. He was a mighty hunter before [or against] the LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod the mighty hunter before the LORD.

And the beginning of his kingdom was Babel [Babylon], and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. Out of that land went forth Asshur [he went forth to Assyria, margin], and builded Nineveh, and the city Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen between Nineveh and Calah: the same is a great city.

This man rose to eminence above his fellows and compelled their allegiance by the use of force like the "little horn" that followed him, for he was a "mighty" one. All the world of that time "wondered after", or worshipped him and his ideas.

John 8:44 He too, was like his "father" as Jesus said of others

You are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father you will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaks a lie, he speaks of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.

Genesis 11:1-4 The beginning of cities

And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech (under God’s plan). And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar. And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.

There have always been "rebels" against God since Lucifer's rebellion. This is the record of one of the early ones and it was he who built the original Babylon, or Babel, as it was known in those days. He was the first to suggest that land, a political state or nation, was more important than the people who lived on it. Here is the foundation of nations, opposed to God’s plan of families. It was here that the tower of defiance was built and men turned their thoughts and languages away from God towards patriotism. (Although God says that it was He that confounded their language, He often takes the blame for things that His creatures do, because He does not accuse any).

It is this system that has made "the Church" more important than the individuals in it. [More on Nimrod]

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23. Acts 20:28-32 Paul’s parting words to the Ephesians

Take heed therefore to yourselves, and to all the flock, over the which the Holy Ghost has made you overseers, to feed the church of God, which He has purchased with His own blood. For I know this, that after my departing shall grievous wolves enter in among you, not sparing the flock.

Also of your own selves shall men arise, speaking perverse things, to draw away disciples after them.

Therefore watch, and remember, that by the space of three years I ceased not to warn every one night and day with tears. And now, brethren, I commend you to God, and to the word of His grace, which is able to build you up, and to give you an inheritance among all them which are sanctified.

Zechariah 5:5-11 This false system is established everywhere

Then the angel that talked with me went forth, and said to me, Lift up now your eyes, and see what is this that goes forth. And I said, What is it? And he said, This is an ephah [a basket] that goes forth. He said moreover, This is their resemblance through all the earth [and through all time].

And, behold, there was lifted up a talent of lead [as a lid for the basket]: and [the angel continued] this is a woman [a church system] that sits in the midst of the ephah. And he said, This is wickedness. And he cast it into the midst of the ephah; and he cast the weight of lead upon the mouth [or top] thereof. [but it didn't stay captive for long!]

Then lifted I up my eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came out two women [the false system has more than one way of presenting error], and the wind was in their wings; for they had wings like the wings of a stork: and they lifted up the ephah between the earth and the heaven [for all to see].

Then said I to the angel that talked with me, Where do these bear the ephah? And he said to me, To build it an house in the land of Shinar [Babylon] : and it shall be established, and set there upon her own base.

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24. Daniel 2:43-44 The attempted union of church and state

And whereas you saw iron mixed with miry [dirty] clay, they [the religionists] shall mingle themselves with the seed of men [the people of the world]: but they shall not cleave one to another, even as iron is not mixed with clay. And in the days of these kings shall the God of heaven set up a kingdom, which shall never be destroyed: and the kingdom shall not be left to other people, but it shall break in pieces and consume all these kingdoms, and it shall stand for ever.

Here we are brought to the ankles of the statue. In 1798 a change took place in world history which Gabriel called the "time of the end". Not the end of time but the period of the feet and toes, the period which begins when the iron and clay attempt to unite and which ends when they split apart forever. So, in this verse we have the king of the south suddenly coming back in world politics and striking at the king of the north. This is God’s way of telling us that the atheism of these last days will attack the false religions of today.

The period since 1798 has been called "The time of the industrial revolution", and has seen a significant and steady withdrawal of peoples’ support of religion. The worship of materialism has taken the place of worship of the gods, and the chase after the "almighty dollar" has increased steadily since that time began. It is in this way that atheism, the king of the south, has attacked the king of the north, and has been very successful.

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25. Psalm 119:126 God’s Spirit will be behind the revival of righteousness

It is time for You, LORD, to work: for they have made void Your law.

Romans 3:31 His people will establish that the law can be kept

Do we then make void the law through faith? God forbid: yes, we establish the law.

There will come a time when he who thought to change the law of God will try and enforce his own laws through the power of the state, for God’s unfailing word has said that the king of the north will retaliate like a whirlwind, with great force and compelling power, so we can expect (for this has not yet happened), that religion will again become the driving force of the world in the near future. This time it will be revived by the Protestant branch of the Church. There will be a great worldwide religious revival, but unfortunately, not based on the word of God. Instead, to a great degree, it will be based on emotion and fear and will be in answer to a call from the people of God to honour His law. The final result of this revival will be a demand for a religious decree to compel all to harmonise in religious practices, a call for the churches to unite.


"... glorious land, and many shall be overthrown"

The word "countries" is not in the Hebrew text and has been supplied by the translators. Literally the verse says that many, even in modern Israel, will succumb to the seductive pull of false religion and go awhoring after Baal and his consort as they have done in the past.

"these shall escape out of his hand"

"Edom" (Esau) = Israel’s (aka Jacob) twin brother. Genesis 25:30.

"Moab and... Ammon" = Israel’s cousins. Genesis 19:36-38.

Many of those in the "offshoots" from the base religion of Abraham will survive because they have followed the Lamb and His teaching, not just the doctrines of the church group they happened to be in.

The Libyans and the Ethiopians were at opposite sides of the land of Egypt. They represent the boundaries of the then known world and as such, give us the picture of a worldwide and ideological encompassing spiritual upheaval. All the religious systems of the world (Christian and non-Christian) will follow the Babylonian false system, to one level or another, while only a few of the faithful will stand up as did Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego to face the fiery furnace of religious persecution. This will be brought about by using the power of the governments of the world (the precious things of Egypt).

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26. Daniel 12:1 Michael (He who is like God) will cease His work

And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince which stands for the children of your people: and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time: and at that time your people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.

This time of persecution "such as never was" will be caused by a voice calling from "the east and the north". With the king of the north down in "Libya" and "Ethiopia" that places the source of the voice in the "promised land" of Israel. What this means is that a call from a small group of God’s people for the professors of Christianity to honour His law (the Ten Commandments) will "trouble" all the false religious systems and they will "go forth with great fury to destroy" this irritant, thus showing their allegiance to the god of force.

In the process the king of the north will plant his "palace" or main false doctrine between the "seas" of people of the world and God’s "mountain", or true church, trying to stop the spread of the truth. This means that the religions of the world and the governments of the world will unite and pass religious laws to enforce their ideas (the clay and the iron). But the last part of the verse tells us that the king of the north will not be successful. They, the true people of God, will give a loud cry to all the world so that every one may make a decision as to what is the truth, for this is how real Christianity fights, with words, not swords. "Then shall the end come."

The issues will be "love and freedom" OR "hate and force"

As a power from beneath is stirring up the children of disobedience to make void the law of God, and to trample upon the truth that Christ is our righteousness, a power from above will be moving upon the hearts of those who are loyal, to exalt the law, and to lift up Jesus as a complete Saviour. However, unless divine power is brought into the experience of the people of God, false theories and ideas will take their minds captive, Christ and His righteousness will be dropped out of the experience of many, and their faith will be without power or life.

2 Timothy 3:1-5

This know also, that in the last days perilous times shall come. For men [and women] shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, without natural affection, trucebreakers, false accusers, incontinent, fierce, despisers of those that are good, traitors, heady, highminded, lovers of pleasures more than lovers of God; having a form of godliness, but denying the power of it: from such turn away.

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