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An Exposition of Daniel 11 and 12

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An exposition of Daniel chapters 11 and 12

As a prelude to the study we need to note that Gabriel does not confuse his listeners with individual names for the various actors (all the world’s a stage,

1 Corinthians 4:9).  We have to look to history for those, for this revelation was future to Daniel and others, but is mainly history to us, and the individuals are relatively unimportant in this context.  (So why does God give us their personal details?  To show the people of their time that the Spirit of God knew the actors face-to-face and was giving the watchers first-hand information, not hear-say or gossip.)

This absence of identity has a double application, for the positions of king of the south or north have been held by different nations at different times.  However, they are both views of antichrist and the principle of their titles remain the same. 

But there are two meanings to the prefix “anti”. 

The first and most obvious “antichrist” is one that is openly “against Christ”, while the second is secretly “in place of Christ”!  The first, strangely enough, is often very religious, with gods many and lords many (1 Corinthians 8:5), while firmly against the true God.  The latter usually maintains there is only one god, but presents a very different one than that of true Christianity by obscuring His character.  We must be prepared to apply names as the Spirit indicates, and change our views as He tells us.

One of the purposes of the unveiling of the future to humans was so that we can co-operate with the true God, and if necessary tell others how accurate and trustworthy He is in His forecasts, with every generation capable of knowing where they are in the conflict. We just need to remember that dates in older history are not the most exact, nor that important to remember. 

The pattern to remember is TWO – Satan works in twos.

    Daniel 2:

27 Daniel answered in the presence of the king, and said, “The secret which the king has demanded cannot the wise men, the astrologers, the magicians, the soothsayers, show to the king; 28 but there is a God in heaven that reveals secrets, and makes known to the king Nebuchadnezzar what shall be in the latter [future] days . . .

     Isaiah 42:

8 I am the LORD [the keeper of promises], that is My name [character]: and My glory [capability] will I not give to another, neither My praise to graven images [for it is of value to you to know Me as I am]. 9 Behold, the former things are come to pass [such as Joseph and the seven-year drought, Genesis 41:1-32], and new things do I declare: before they spring forth I tell you of them. [“And now I have told you before it come to pass, that, when it is come to pass, you might believe [understand]”. John 14:29.] 

God wants all of us to know exactly the future events which affect His people (i.e. for all eras, all languages, where we live, and when we live), but we, and angels, are just learning about Life and the universe and unless we are close enough to Him to be able to understand – unless we really submit to being continually taught – He finds it difficult to break it down to our level.  Who would have comprehended the story of the Messiah being born as a poverty-stricken baby in a stable and dying as an extraordinary criminal (a traitor to king and country) without seeing it happening?  Let alone that He was the Son of God!

That’s why so much of the Old Testament prophecies seem to be garbled and require a Christian growth to understand them.  We can also know from His predictions that nothing takes Him by surprise and that He has or is, and will be, compensating for the events as, and before, they occur.

Why do we need this knowledge?

This quote from the “Dial Daily Bread” Archive: October 20, 2005.
Copyright © 2017 by “Dial Daily Bread” answers that query very well (better than I can):   
[My emphasis.]

     Dear Friends of “Dial Daily Bread,”

In Matthew 24, Jesus speaks extensively about the end of the world and of His second coming (see, for example, verses 12-15, 24, 29-31).  Of all the books of the Bible, He selected one which He urged us to “read” and “understand” -- Daniel [the whole book]. Yet seldom do pastors or teachers study this book [intensely].  People go to church for years and hear no [detailed] sermon explaining it.

Daniel's key prophecy says: “Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed” (8:14).  In Bible prophecy, a day is a year.  In the early 19th century Bible-loving Christians awakened as from a centuries-long sleep to realize that those 2300 years would end in 1844, on October 22.  The Holy Spirit impressed many with this stupendous conviction; to this day, millions around the world recognize how history and Bible prophecy converge to render that point of time significant in God's plan for salvation.

We are living in the time of the cleansing of the heavenly sanctuary;

in simple language that means we are living in the time when Christ as our great High Priest is preparing a people to be ready for His second coming – a greater work than preparing His people to die and come up in the first resurrection, wonderful as that work has been.  It means that His people must live on earth during the cataclysmic last days when they will meet head-on the last temptations of Satan, but will overcome “even as [Christ] also overcame.” [By the truth in the word of God.]

They will honor Him, and share with Him His throne.  They will demonstrate His righteousness [and never die.  John 11:26.]  (Rev. 3:21).

But Revelation also discloses that Christ's last great struggle is with the blindness and lukewarmness of His own people who can't seem to grasp the seriousness of the time in which they live (3:15-19). 

Urgent as never before He says, “Watch therefore” (Matt.  24:42).

 -- Robert J.  Wieland   [1916 - 2011]          http://www.legacy.com/obituaries/theloomisnews/obituary.aspx?n=robert-julius-wieland&pid=152871478


May this reading be a blessing to you.       

RonP,     October 2017


An Exposition of Daniel 11 and 12

[Gabriel spoke to Daniel]

    Daniel 10:

11 And he said to me, “O Daniel, a man greatly beloved, understand the words that I speak to you, and stand upright [he had fainted in the presence of the Son of God]: for to you am I now sent”. 

And when he had spoken this word to me, I stood trembling. 12 Then said he to me, “Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that you did set your heart to understand, and to chasten yourself before your God, your words were heard, and I am come for your words. 13 But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me twenty-one days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.

14 “Now I am come to make you understand what shall befall your people in the latter days: for yet the vision is for many days . . .

20 Then said he [Gabriel], “Know you [understand] wherefore I come to you?  And now will I return to [have a verbal] fight with the prince of Persia [Cyrus, verse 1]: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come [in about 200 years!]

21 But [first] I will show you that which is noted in the Scripture of Truth: and there is none that holds with me in these things, but Michael your Prince. 

Gabriel was not boasting, simply stating a fact, for all the loyal universe was intrigued with what was going on here on this planet and were trying to work out how it will all happen in the end the way God says it will. This was centuries ahead of the cross, but they all trusted implicitly in the word of God!  So Gabriel understood most of what he was going to teach, but the majority of other heavenly beings did not.  “. . . which things the angels desire to look into”. 1 Peter 1:12.


Then he began his futures lesson:

The kings of Persia:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

1 Also I in the first year of Darius the Mede [the new king of Babylon, 539BC], even I, stood to confirm and to strengthen him. [They were now in the third year of Cyrus, c. 534BC five years later.  Daniel 10:1.]

2 And now will I show you the truth.

Behold, there shall stand up yet three kings in Persia; and the fourth shall be far richer than they all: and by his strength through his riches [for he will be greedy and ambitious] he shall stir up all against the realm of Grecia [Greece].

***************(End Quote)

The three kings mentioned were:  

1) Cyrus the Persian who issued the first decree for the rebuilding of the temple and Jerusalem, who took over the kingdom in 537BC after Darius the Mede.  See Ezra 1:1-4.

2)  Cambyses, c.530-522BC;  (There was one called Gaumata c.525BC (aka Artaxerxes) who impersonated Cambyses’ brother Smerdis and usurped the throne while Cambyses was fighting in Egypt.  He ruled just long enough to suspend the temple building (Ezra 4:23-24), but he should not be counted because he was an imposter and Cambyses was alive.  See Ezra 4:4-5.)

3)  Darius the Great, c.522-486BC who killed Gaumata and took over after Cambyses died.  He re-issued the decree to rebuild the temple. (Ezra 6:6-12)

4)  The fourth was Xerxes (aka Ahasuerus) c.486-465BC.  He was the king who divorced his disobedient wife and eventually married the Jewish lady named Esther, and in between these acts went to war with the Greeks.  See Esther 1:1-3; 2:16-17. 

5) There was a fifth king that Gabriel did not mention named Artaxerxes Longimanus, c.465-423BC, one of the sons of Xerxes.  He obviously had much to do with Esther, one of his father’s wives.  I believe that it was because of his connection with the Jewish people through her that he first gave Ezra such favourable conditions and gave the command to re-establish the Jewish nation.  (See Ezra 6:14 and chapter 7.)

Gabriel then continued with the scene in the world:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

3 And a mighty king [Alexander] shall stand up [in Greece and the world], that shall rule with great dominion, and do according to his will.

4 And when he shall stand up [be at his peak], his kingdom shall be broken, and shall be divided toward the four winds of heaven [north, south, east and west]; and not to his posterity [children], nor according to his dominion which he ruled: for his kingdom shall be plucked up, even for others beside those.

***************(End Quote)

In an earlier vision Daniel had been shown a ram and a goat:

    Daniel 8:

1 In the third year [c. 550BC] of the reign of king Belshazzar [actually he was the regent] a vision appeared to me, even to me Daniel, after that which appeared to me at the first [Daniel 2]. 2 And I saw in a vision; and it came to pass, when I saw, that I was at Shushan in the palace, which is in the province of Elam [the summer headquarters of the court]; and I saw in a vision, and I was by the river of Ulai.

3 Then I lifted up my eyes, and saw, and, behold, there stood before the river a ram which had two horns: and the two horns were high; but one was higher than the other, and the higher came up last. [Consider the bear in Daniel 7:5]  

4 I saw the ram pushing westward, and northward, and southward [moving from the east]; so that no beasts might stand before him, neither was there any that could deliver out of his hand; but he did according to his will, and became great.

5 And as I was considering, behold, a he goat came from the west on the face of the whole earth, and touched not the ground [he was travelling so fast]: and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes. 

[Horns indicate smaller fighting powers in Satan’s kingdom of animals.]

6 And he came to the ram that had two horns, which I had seen standing before the river, and ran to him in the fury of his power. 7 And I saw him come close to the ram, and he was moved with choler [great anger] against him, and smote the ram, and broke his two horns: and there was no power in the ram to stand before him, but he cast him down to the ground, and stamped upon him: and there was none that could deliver the ram out of his hand. 

8 Therefore the he goat waxed very great: and when he was strong, the great horn was broken; and for it came up four notable ones toward the four winds of heaven.

9 And out of one of them [the four] came forth [as I watched] a little horn, which waxed exceeding great, toward the south, and toward the east [it came from the west], and toward the pleasant land [of Israel] . . .

20 The ram which you saw having two horns are the kings of Media and Persia.

21 And the rough goat is the king of Grecia [Greece]: and the great horn that is between his eyes is the first king [Alexander]. 22 Now that being broken, whereas four stood up for it [his four generals], four kingdoms shall stand up out of the nation, but not in his power [each had only a quarter of it].

[It was not very long before the general in the north, Lysimachus of Thrace (Turkey and Greece), combined the west (Cassander of Greece and Macedonia) under his umbrella, and then he in turn was absorbed by Seleucus of Syria which left just one king in the north, with Ptolemy of Egypt in the south. 

It was in this manner that the terms “king of the north” and “king of the south” came to be used, with “north” representing the area of Greece/Syria/Babylon/Persia, and “south” indicative of Egypt, the outright rejecter of the living God.  Israel was independent and neutral.

The brass “belly” of Greece had become the “two thighs”.  Daniel 2:32.]

23 And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors are come to the full, a king of fierce countenance [the little horn], and understanding dark sentences [a different language], shall stand up. 

We have also an even earlier vision of Satan’s kingdom:

        Daniel 2:

31 You, O king, saw, and behold a great image.  This great image [statue of a fighting man], whose brightness was excellent, stood before you; and the form thereof was terrible [frightening]. 32 This image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms of silver, his belly and his [two] thighs of brass [the division came at this point, about twenty years after Alexander’s death, probably 303BC]. 33 His [two] legs [were] of iron, his [two] feet part of iron and part of clay. 

34 You saw [a moving vision] till that a stone was cut out [from the mountain which represented God’s kingdom] without [human] hands [therefore by the Holy Spirit], which smote the image [of Satan’s kingdom] upon his feet that were of iron and clay [at the end of the image], and broke them to pieces. [There was always a mountain in the background of the vision.  See Daniel 2:45.]

35 Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver, and the gold, broken to pieces together [the whole image from foot to head], and became like the chaff of the summer threshing floors; and the wind carried them away, that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote the image became a[nother] great mountain, and filled the whole earth. . . 

[So that vision ends with two mountains – two parts to God’s kingdom.]

39 And after you [the gold of Nebuchadnezzar ]

          shall arise another [silver] kingdom inferior to you,

and another third kingdom of brass,

which shall [also] bear rule over all the earth.  

And then a two-legged iron fourth which culminates in feet with clay added.

So the image of Satan’s kingdom portrays earthly events to the end of time, expanding to encompass the whole planet eventually, with the explanation that in the last days there will not be any one world-wide empire, religious or otherwise, only an uneasy amalgamation of two powers, iron and wet clay. 

Note this carefully, for any later text or vision will not contradict an original, only expand it, or make it clearer.  John 10:35.


The ten toes, coming after the Papacy (one of the legs),

cannot represent the modern nations of Europe,

because that power disposed of three of them on its rise

(the horns, Daniel 7:20-21)

leaving only seven today. Daniel 7:8.


So the turn of the ankles represents the major turn of events since 1798.


   {4BC 1168.8}

We have come to [arrived at] a time [1899] when God's sacred work is represented by [the time of] the feet of the image in which the iron was mixed with the miry clay. 

God has a people, a chosen people, whose discernment must be sanctified [carefully accurate], who must not become unholy by laying upon the foundation wood, hay, and stubble [which represent confused doctrines, 1 Corinthians 3:10-15].  Every soul who is loyal to the commandments of God will see that the distinguishing feature of our faith is the seventh-day Sabbath.  If the government [of the United States] would honor the Sabbath as God has commanded, it would stand in the strength of God and in defense of the faith once delivered to the saints. 

But statesmen will uphold the spurious sabbath, and will mingle their religious faith with the observance of this child of the papacy, placing it above the Sabbath which the Lord has sanctified and blessed, setting it apart for man to keep holy, as a sign between Him and His people to a thousand generations [i.e. forever] 

The mingling of churchcraft and statecraft is represented by the iron and the clay. [The ten toes represent the final associating of all the world-wide religions and states!]

This union is weakening all the power of the churches [by drying out the clay, for the dirty wetness indicates the weakened presence of the Holy Spirit].  This investing the church with the power of the state will bring evil results.  Men have almost passed the point of God's forbearance. 

They have invested their strength in politics, and have united [not, “going to”!] with the papacy.  But the time will come when God will punish those who have made void His law, and their evil work will recoil upon themselves (MS 63, 1899).  

 When we go back to Daniel’s vision, there are now only two kings, Egypt and the Syrian union, but Satan has realised that he can do more to Israel through a series of conflicts between two nations than outright persecution by one political state.  He now has two arrows for his bow! 

 We may not have appreciated it, but between the kings of the north and south lies Israel, the people of God. And by encouraging conflicts between his two agencies he hopes to eliminate Israel.  He doesn’t care about the deaths of his own followers, they are just like cattle to him.  So sometimes he uses them together (as in the next paragraph), and other times they are at each other’s throats, but always the object is to destroy God’s people, although the kings did not always do as Satan intended.

 So Gabriel continues:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

5 And the king of the south [Egypt] shall be strong, and one of his princes; and [yet] he [the king of the north, Syria] shall be strong above him [south], and have dominion; his [north’s] dominion shall be a great dominion. [Like the woman riding the beast.  Revelation 17:3.]

  6 And in the end of years they shall join themselves together; for the king's daughter of the south shall come to the king of the north to make an agreement [a political marriage]: but she shall not retain the power of the [her father’s] arm; neither shall he stand, nor his [political] arm: but she shall be given up [rejected], and they that brought her, and he that begat her, and he that strengthened [supported] her in these times. [They will all die violent deaths].

***************(End Quote)

 But, in the future/history, an avenger will arise:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

7 But out of a branch of her roots [in the south] shall one [her brother] stand up in his estate [become king of Egypt], which shall come with an army, and shall enter into the fortress of the king of the north, and shall deal against them, and shall prevail: 8 and shall also carry captives into Egypt [the statues of] their gods, with their princes, and with their precious vessels of silver and of gold; and he shall continue more years than the king of the north.

  9 So the king of the south shall come into his kingdom, and shall return into his own land [and the distinction of two kings remained].

***************(End Quote)

 Can you imagine the mind-set of the true people of God when this apparent unity [the marriage] took place?  Was God’s word faulty?  Was their interpretation wrong?  All they had to do was wait, for time is different for heavenly beings who live in infinity.  We are told; “Here is the patience of the saints”.  Revelation 13:10.

 North retaliates:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

10 But his [the king of the north] sons shall be stirred up, and shall assemble a multitude of great forces: and one shall certainly come [to the south], and overflow, and pass through: then shall he return, and be stirred up [because of internal problems], even to his fortress.

***************(End Quote)

 Then south attacks north and has a great victory.

   (God’s people are also mentioned):

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

11 And the king of the south shall be moved with choler [great anger], and shall come forth and fight with him, even with the king of the north: and he [north] shall set forth a great multitude [with the help of the Jews]; but the multitude shall be given into his [south’s] hand.

12 And when he [south] has taken away the multitude, his heart shall be lifted up [with pride and anger]; and he shall cast down many ten thousands [of Jews in the city of Alexandria, in his own kingdom]: but he shall not be strengthened by it.

***************(End Quote)

We need to appreciate that there were often long (to us) periods between the recorded happenings – like the two-part First and Second World War of recent history, 1914-1918 and 1939-1945 for they were really two parts of the same conflict. 

Some of the events must have seemed like the end of the world to God’s people at times, but if they were following this prophecy there were always more verses to come!

There will be wars and rumours of wars:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

13 For the king of the north shall return, and shall set forth a multitude greater than the former, and shall certainly come after certain years with a great army and with much riches.

14 And in those times there shall many stand up against the king of the south [trying to take over Egypt]: also the robbers of your people [the king of the north] shall exalt themselves to establish the vision [make a one-world empire]; but they shall fall. [How?  Read on.]

***************(End Quote)

The see-saw continued until a new world power emerged:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

15 So the king of the north shall come, and cast up a mount [set a siege], and take the most fenced cities: and the arms of the south shall not withstand, neither His [God’s] chosen people [Israel], neither shall there be any strength to withstand. [North will be victorious for a while.]

16 But he [a newcomer, a republic, one of the legs of iron] that comes against him [north] shall do according to his own will (see Appendix D, page 35), and none shall stand before him: and he shall stand in the glorious land [of Israel, as he will in Egypt], which by his hand shall be consumed [at first absorbed by a treaty c.161BC, but eventually he conquered the whole region by force, which made him the king of the north AND the south (for a while)!  This was something that Satan had not bargained on, but God had anticipated!]

[{1878 UrS [Uriah Smith], The Biblical Institute 52.2}

This horn must symbolize Rome, as in the parallel visions of Dan. 2 and 7.  Rome came out of one of the horns of the goat, as it conquered Macedonia B.C. 168, and in 161 became connected with the people of God by its league with the Jews; 1 Mac.8; Josephus' Antiq., b.  xii., c.  x., sec.  6; Prideaux, vol.ii., p.166; thus becoming a subject of prophecy, and appearing to the prophet to come out of the Macedonian horn.  It extended its conquests toward the east, south, and pleasant land (Palestine) [for it came from the west], making provinces of the following countries: Syria, B.C. 65; Palestine, B.C. 63; Egypt, B.C. 30.  It stood up against the Prince of princes, nailing Christ to the cross [31AD].  By Rome the daily was taken away and the transgression of desolation set up; that is, there was a change in the religion of the empire [in 331AD] . . .]  

 17 He shall also set his face to enter with the strength of his whole kingdom [trying to take over the world completely], and [some supposed] upright ones [Jews] with him [See appendix A, page 32]; thus shall he do: and he [Satan who is the leader of both kings] shall give him the daughter of women [Cleopatra], corrupting her: but she shall not [really] stand on his side, neither be for him [but be for herself].

18 After this shall he [the new north] turn his face to the isles [some smaller countries], and shall take many: but a prince for his own behalf [one of his friends] shall cause the reproach offered by him to cease; without his own reproach [without anger] he shall cause it to turn upon him. [Consider Julius Caesar and Brutus.] 19 Then he shall turn his face toward the fort of his own land: but he shall stumble and fall, and not be found [alive any more].

***************(End Quote)

Then there will be a succession of emperors:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

20 Then shall stand up in his estate a raiser of taxes [Caesar Augustus, the first emperor of Rome] in the glory of the [Satan’s] kingdom [Luke 2:1]: but within few days he shall be destroyed, neither in anger, nor in battle [c. 14AD].

21 And in his estate shall stand up a vile person [Tiberius], to whom they shall not give the honour of the [Roman] kingdom: but he shall come in peaceably, and obtain the kingdom by flatteries.

***************(End Quote)

For a while Pagan north will be dominant:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

22 And with the arms of a flood [i.e. the power of the people, Revelation 17:15] shall they be overflown from before him, and shall be broken; yea, also the Prince of the covenant [Christ on the cross].

***************(End Quote)


Republicism will enlarge and eventually become democracy.


There will be an unusual takeover:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

23 And after the league made with him he [the new king of the north and south, see extra note, page 31] shall work deceitfully [John 8:44]: for he shall come up, and shall become strong with a small people [from one city!]

24 He shall enter peaceably even upon the fattest [richest] places of the province [the Roman peace lasted about 200 years in the European world]; and he shall do that which his fathers have not done, nor his fathers' fathers; he shall scatter among them the prey, and spoil, and riches: yea, and he shall forecast his devices against the strong holds [of the other Pagans], even for a time.

25 And he [the north portion] shall stir up his power and his courage against the king of the south [part] with a great army [these two parts are often called “west” and “east” in our history books, Rome and Constantinople]; and the king of the south shall be stirred up to battle with a very great and mighty army [for he still exists within the Roman Empire, although underground]; but he shall not stand: for they shall forecast devices against him. 

***************(End Quote)

There will be civil war in the Roman Empire:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

26 Yea, they that feed of the portion of his meat [food] shall destroy him, and his army shall overflow: and many shall fall down slain.

27 And both these kings' hearts shall be to do mischief, and they shall speak lies at one [negotiating] table; but it shall not prosper: for yet the end shall be at the time appointed. 28 Then shall he [north] return into his land with great riches; and his heart shall be against the holy covenant [true Christianity]; and he shall do exploits, and return to his own land.

***************(End Quote)

Satan was now able to control the king of the north and he took a religious stand which set the stage for the formation of the Papacy.  In the background, he was also preparing his other arm, the Muslim religion, as a new king of the south which would emerge around the same time. (See Revelation 9.) Having two religions fighting one another was a new twist, and would cause much more confusion among God’s people!

The split between the two legs, in the east Constantinople, in the west Rome, occurred when Constantine moved the capital of the empire to the city named after him in what is now Turkey around 320AD, and made Christianity the sole religion of the empire.  He also called it “Nova Roma – New Rome”.  

     {1898 ATJ, GEP 477.3}16.  [A T Jones, Great Empires of Prophecy, page 477, para. 16]

Accordingly, March 7, A. D. 321, Constantine issued his famous Sunday edict, which, both in matter and in intent, is the original and the model of all the Sunday laws that have ever been made.  It runs as follows:  -- {1898 ATJ, GEP 477.2}

“Constantine, Emperor Augustus, to Helpidius: On the venerable day of the sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed.  In the country, however, persons engaged in agriculture may freely and lawfully continue their pursuits; because it often happens that another day is not so suitable for grain-sowing or for vine-planting; lest by neglecting the proper moment for such operations, the bounty of heaven should be lost.  (Given the 7th day of March, Crispus and Constantine being consuls each of them for the second time.)” {1898 ATJ, GEP 477.3}

It was he who made the first official Sunday law in 321AD, but the day itself had always been important in religions, going right back to Cain.


{PP 80.3} 

Before the Fall our first parents had kept the Sabbath, which was instituted in Eden; and after their expulsion from Paradise they continued its observance.  They had tasted the bitter fruits of disobedience, and had learned what every one that tramples upon God's commandments will sooner or later learn -- that the divine precepts are sacred and immutable, and that the penalty of transgression will surely be inflicted.  The Sabbath was honored by all the children of Adam that remained loyal to God.  But Cain and his descendants did not respect the day upon which God had rested.  They chose their own time for labor and for rest, regardless of Jehovah's express command.  

{PP 78.2-3}

In sparing the life of the first murderer, God presented before the whole universe a lesson bearing upon the great controversy.   The dark history of Cain and his descendants was an illustration of what would have been the result of permitting the sinner to live on forever, to carry out his rebellion against God.   The forbearance of God only rendered the wicked more bold and defiant in their iniquity.   Fifteen centuries after the sentence pronounced upon Cain, the universe witnessed the fruition of his influence and example, in the crime and pollution that flooded the earth [and the resulting Flood].   It was made manifest that the sentence of death [i.e. the results of sin] pronounced upon the fallen race for the transgression of God's law was both just and merciful. The longer men lived in sin, the more abandoned they became. The divine sentence cutting short a career of unbridled iniquity, and freeing the world from the influence of those who had become hardened in rebellion, was a blessing rather than a curse.  {PP 78.2} 

Satan is constantly at work, with intense energy and under a thousand disguises, to misrepresent the character and government of God.   With extensive, well-organized plans and marvelous power, he is working to hold the inhabitants of the world under his deceptions.   God, the One infinite and all-wise, sees the end from the beginning, and in dealing with evil His plans were far-reaching and comprehensive.   It was His purpose, not merely to put down the rebellion, but to demonstrate to all the universe the nature of the rebellion.   God's plan was unfolding, showing both His justice and His mercy, and fully vindicating His wisdom and righteousness in His dealings with evil.    {PP 78.3} 

For greater detail on the foregoing verses I recommend the book by Uriah Smith, Daniel and the Revelation Click here for it.[1]  It’s a big book, 865 pages, and takes a while to download.  You will need to turn to page 259 in the PDF to get the start of this prophecy.  Just remember that we are now over 100 years further on into the time of the end.

But from this point on in his book (from Daniel 11:29) Smith remains in a literal geographical view which does not fit the specifics of the prophecy, for Gabriel’s detailed description of the future changes to a spiritual or religious view with world-wide implications.

If we miss this change then we do ourselves a disservice, for this is describing the changeover from one iron leg to the other (Pagan to Papal), just as one arm of the Medes and Persians became the other in the original vision.  Remember the purpose of these visions (in the preface on page 3)!

A modified return:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

29 At the time appointed he [north] shall return, and come toward the south; but it shall not be as the former, or as the latter. 30 For the ships of Chittim [the pirates of the Mediterranean?] shall come against him: therefore he shall be grieved, and return, and have indignation against the holy covenant: so shall he do; he shall even return, and have intelligence [form a union] with them that forsake the holy covenant [some apostates]

[The king of the north, the second leg, Papal Rome,

is now a professed Christian  religion.]

31 And arms [civil authority, the other leg] shall stand on his part, and they [the arms of force, a combination of church and state] shall pollute the sanctuary of strength [destroy the memory of the Jewish temple, physically and spiritually, (this “pollution” represents actions done by both of the aspects of this antichrist)], and shall take away the daily sacrifice [a word added by the translators], and they shall place the abomination that makes desolate [in the minds of the people, where the meaning of the heavenly sanctuary once was.  Revelation 2:4-6 and up to verse 17].

32 And such as do wickedly against the covenant shall he corrupt by flatteries: but the people that do know their God shall be strong, and do exploits. 33 And they that understand among the people shall instruct many: yet they shall fall by the sword, and by flame, by captivity, and by spoil, many days [many years, in the early great persecutions].  See Revelation 2:8-29.

34 Now when they shall fall, they shall be holpen [helped] with a little help: but many shall cleave to them with flatteries [the tares]. 35 And some of them of understanding shall fall, to try them, and to purge, and to make them white, even to the time of the end [from 1798AD]: because [the end of] it [the mystery of God, 1 Corinthians 2:7] is yet for a time appointed.

***************(End Quote)

North will become the spiritual boss of the world and yet claim to be Christian, despite Jesus having warned the church people, “Be not you called Rabbi [or any religious title]: for one is your Master, even Christ; and all you are brethren.  And call no man your father [in religious terms] upon the earth: for one is your Father, which is in heaven.  Neither be you called masters: for one is your Master, even Christ.  But he that is greatest among you shall be your servant.  And whosoever shall exalt himself shall be abased; and he that shall humble himself shall be exalted”.  Matthew 23:8-12. 

He will be a selfish boss:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

36 And the king [of the north] shall do according to his will; and he shall exalt himself, and magnify himself above every god, and shall speak marvellous things against the God of gods, and shall prosper [for 1260 years] till the indignation [the controversy] be accomplished: for that that is determined shall be done. 37 Neither shall he regard the God of his fathers, nor the desire of women, nor regard any god: for he shall magnify himself above all.

***************(End Quote)

This was enlarged upon in the New Testament:

2 Thessalonians 2:

3 Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day [the Second Advent] shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition [all that is evil]; 4 who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sits in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God.

5 Remember you not, that, when I was yet with you, I told you these things [as revealed in the Old Testament]?

 6 And now you know what withholds [him] that he might be revealed in his time. 7 For the mystery of iniquity [rebellion] does already work [in 60AD, for it is continually present]: only He who now lets [allows] will let [and will continue to protect as much as He is allowed], until He be taken out of the way [at the close of probation when He is totally rejected].

8 And then shall that Wicked be [totally] revealed [worldwide], whom the LORD shall consume with the spirit of His mouth [exposure by the truth], and shall destroy with the brightness of His coming [as light extinguishes darkness] . . .”  

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

38 But in his estate [in his behaviour] shall he honour the god of forces [Satan]: and a god whom his fathers knew not shall he honour with gold, and silver, and with precious stones, and pleasant things.

39 Thus shall he do in the most strong holds [some of the religious imaginations of the true church members] with a strange god [Satan, as Baal], whom he shall acknowledge and increase with glory [they began to teach of a god who used force for good!]: and he shall cause them [an elite] to rule over many [the clergy versus the laity], and shall divide the land for gain [into the iron and clay].

***************(End Quote)

No names are mentioned even now, for the holders of the titles have varied from time to time [even within living memory], but the designations tell us that one is openly against Christianity, while the other claims to be Christian.  And the second leg of iron has “daughters” for she is “THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH”!  Revelation 17:5.  The offspring will become more important in the last days, for the first to start the call for national Sunday observance will be a daughter given “in marriage” to Spiritualism.

    {GC 588.1} 

Through the two great errors, the immortality of the soul and Sunday sacredness, Satan will bring the people under his deceptions.  While the former lays the foundation of spiritualism, the latter creates a bond of sympathy with Rome.  The Protestants of the United States will be foremost in stretching their hands across the gulf to grasp the hand of spiritualism; they will [then] reach over the abyss to clasp hands with the Roman power; and under the influence of this threefold union, this country will follow in the steps of Rome in trampling on the rights of conscience.  

I believe I know who is fighting who in the world today (i.e. in the religious war), but in the area of unfulfilled prophecy let us tread warily for we could often make mistakes based on our feelings and sight.  We need to stick closely to the words rather than any forecasts (even our own), because, sadly, prophecy is only really fully understood or comprehended AFTER the event.

But here we have been told that one of the daughters of the north shall initiate the last day religious events.  Consider Revelation chapter 13.

There are many twists and turns (finer details) in this history that we are not told beforehand, but they do not affect the final outcome.  It will ALWAYS occur as God has disclosed – it will be our understanding of that word that has to be modified from time to time.

South starts the final conflict [note this]:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

40 And at the time of the end [after 1798] shall the king of the south [the “against” Christ] push [with 200 million fighters!  Revelation 9:16] at him [the “in place of” Christ north]: and the king of the north shall come against him like a whirlwind, with chariots, and with horsemen, and with many ships; and he shall enter into the countries, and shall overflow and pass over.

41 He [the king of the north] shall enter also into the glorious land [the true church], and many countries [another added word] shall be overthrown: but these shall escape out of his hand [won’t be fooled by his specious arguments], even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon [who were close relations of Abraham]. 42 He [north] shall stretch forth his hand also upon the countries [this is physical as well as spiritual]: and the land of Egypt [the king of the south] shall not escape.

43 But he [north] shall have [financial] power over the treasures of gold and of silver, and over all the precious things of Egypt: and the Libyans and the Ethiopians shall be at his steps [following his way].

***************(End Quote)

Then he has a problem:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 11:

44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north [the loud cry] shall trouble him [while he is spiritually in Egypt, Libya and Ethiopia]: therefore he shall go forth [to spiritual Israel] with great fury to destroy, and utterly to make away many [a reaction to the loud cry].

45 And he shall plant the tabernacles of his palace [showing his victories] between the seas [in front of the people, Revelation 17:15] in the glorious holy mountain [the true church]; yet he shall come to his end [remember the stone?], and none shall help [or support] him [in the end].

***************(End Quote)

And so we move on into the next chapter of Daniel without stopping, for chapters and verses were not in the early Scriptures, having been inserted centuries later for the convenience of scholars.  (See appendix B, page 33.) 

Chapter 12:

The close of probation:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 12:

1 And at that time [AFTER the religious tribulations, Matthew 24:29] shall Michael stand up [having been allowed to finish His sanctuary work], the great Prince which stands for the children of your people [and prepare for the Second Coming]: and there shall be a time of trouble [the seven last plagues, Matthew 24:21], such as never was since there was a nation [Genesis 10:8-10] even to that same time: and at [the end of] that time your people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the Book [of Life].

2 And [first] many [but NOT all] of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake [be resurrected BEFORE the main event], some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt [a mixture of good and bad].

           [{GC 637.1} 

Graves are opened, and “many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth . . .   awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt.”  Daniel 12:2.  All who have died in the faith of the third angel's message [openly keeping the Sabbath since 1846] come forth from the tomb glorified, to hear God's covenant of peace with those who have kept His law. 

“They also which pierced Him” (Revelation 1:7), those that mocked and derided Christ's dying agonies, and the most violent opposers of His truth and His people [over the ages], are raised to behold Him in His glory and to see the honor placed upon the loyal and obedient.] 

3 And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament [the sun]; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.

***************(End Quote)

The meaning of these events will not be understood till much later:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 12:

4 But you, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the [your] book, even to the time of the end: [then] many shall run to and fro [in the Bible], and knowledge [of the end times] shall be increased. [Because not until then will God’s people really search the Bible His way.  See appendix C for an example, page 34.]

***************(End Quote)

This was followed by a good question:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 12:

5 Then I Daniel looked [in my vision], and, behold, there stood other two [angels], the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river [Daniel 8:2]. 6 And one [of those angels] said to the Man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river,

“How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?” [For he too, was intrigued.]

7 And I heard the Man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when He held up His right hand and His left hand to heaven, and sware by Him that lives for ever [the Ancient of Days, Daniel 7:9; 13; 22] that it shall be for a time, times, and a half; and when he [the king of the north] shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people [that will settle the time], all these things shall be finished. [It will be a “cross” experience – without a death! Zechariah 13:7-9; Matthew 26:31.]

***************(End Quote)

Revelation 10:

1 And I saw another mighty Angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud: and a rainbow was upon [above] His head, and His face was as it were the sun, and His feet as pillars of fire: 2 and He had in His hand a little book [Daniel’s writings] open: and He set His right foot upon the sea, and His left foot on the earth, 3 and cried with a loud voice, as when a lion roars: and when He had cried, seven thunders uttered their voices. 

4 And when the seven thunders had uttered their voices [with ominous messages], I was about to write: and I heard a voice from heaven saying to me, “Seal up those things which the seven thunders uttered, and write them not [they have to be experienced, not told about]”.

5 And the Angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up His hand to heaven, 6 and sware by Him that lives for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be time no longer: 7 but in the days of the voice [the trumpet] of the seventh angel, when he shall begin to sound [the last trump, Revelation 11:15], the mystery of God [Colossians 1:27] should be finished, as He has declared to His servants the prophets. 

[{2SM 108.1} 

“And the angel which I saw stand upon the sea and upon the earth lifted up his hand to heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever and ever, who created heaven, and the things that therein are, and the earth, and the things that therein are, and the sea, and the things which are therein, that there should be time no longer” (Revelation 10:5, 6).  This message announces the end of the prophetic periods.  The disappointment of those who expected to see our Lord in 1844 was indeed bitter to those who had so ardently looked for His appearing.  It was in the Lord's order that this disappointment should come, and that hearts should be revealed. [i.e. He used it, as He uses all our attempts at “walking” with Him.]]  

 [{7BC 971.7} 

This time, which the angel declares with a solemn oath, is not the end of this world's history, neither of probationary time, but of prophetic time, which should precede the advent of our Lord. That is, the people will not have another message upon definite time [with a start and end date].  After this period of time, reaching from 1842 to 1844, there can be no definite tracing of the prophetic time [nor the day for a year principle]. The longest reckoning reaches to the autumn of 1844.] 

[{7BC 971.3}]

The mighty angel who instructed John was no less a personage than Jesus Christ.  Setting His right foot on the sea, and His left upon the dry land, shows the part which He is acting in the closing scenes of the great controversy with Satan. 

This position denotes His supreme power and authority over the whole earth.  The controversy had waxed stronger and more determined from age to age, and will continue to do so, to the concluding scenes when the masterly working of the powers of darkness shall reach their height.  Satan, united with evil men, will deceive the whole world and the churches who receive not the love of the truth.  But the mighty angel demands attention.  He cries with a loud voice.  He is to show the power and authority of His voice to those who have united with Satan to oppose the truth. [This is the loud cry – repeated.  Revelation 10:11.]  

An added thought:

***************(Begin Quote)

Daniel 12:

8 And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, “O my LORD, what [not when] shall be the end of these things?”

9 And He said, “Go your way, Daniel: for the [your] words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end. [1798 onwards] 10 Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand [eventually].

11 And from the time that the daily sacrifice [an added word] shall be taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate [2] [Sunday observance by law] set up [again, in its place], there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days. [1290] 

12 Blessed is he that waits, and comes to the thousand three hundred and thirty-five days [from the abomination]. [1335 days, another difference of 45 days “from the time”.]                

[There has been no “day for a year” principle since 1844!]

13 But go you your way till the end be: for you shall rest [in the grave], and stand in your lot at the end of the days.

***************(End Quote)

In this last exchange Daniel has been told that his prophecies were not for him, but for those who live in the time of the end. 

And that could be us!




We end up with a king of the north (or should I say, queen of the north?  See Revelation 18:7), a religious system (a woman) riding on the back of all the governments of the world (the seven-headed beast), and a religious law containing a death penalty for non-compliance. 

These two weapons of Satan (the two feet, or the woman and the beast) are supported by ten toes (subservient religions or horns) which, when they realise where they are, will “hate the whore” and attempt to destroy it, which is what we find in:-

    Revelation 17:

1 And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials [of the seven last plagues], and talked with me, saying to me, “Come hither; I will show to you the judgment of the great whore that sits upon many waters: 2 with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication”.

3 So he carried me away in the Spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.

4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication: 5 and upon her forehead was a name written, MYSTERY, BABYLON THE GREAT, THE MOTHER OF HARLOTS AND ABOMINATIONS OF THE EARTH.

6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration [amazement that antichrist was still around at that time].

7 And the angel said to me, “Wherefore [why] did you marvel? I will tell you the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carries her, which has the seven heads and ten horns. [So WE should listen carefully!]

8 “The beast that you saw was [once in control of the world], and is not [right now]; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit [it will come back], and go into perdition [the Lake of Fire]: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the Book of Life [which was started] from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was [once], and is not [now], and yet is [in the background waiting].

[So this verse sets the timing of this prophecy for us –

when the beast is not ruling the world, but a 6th head was.

John was living under the authority of the fourth head, Pagan Rome,

and he knew it.]

[That's a bit of a conundrum, but simply means that men will be directing their own destiny for a while till Satan can regain the leadership.]

9 “And here is the mind which has wisdom [and wants a clue]

The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sits.

10 “And there are seven kings [represented by the heads]: five are fallen [will be in the past when this prophecy comes into effect], and one [the 6th] is [will be ruling then], and the other [the 7th] is not yet come [at that time]; and when he comes, he must continue a short space.  

11 “And the beast that was, and is not, even he is the eighth [i.e. he is the completeness of rebellion], and is of [the same character as] the seven, and goes into perdition [with them].  Revelation 19:20; 20:10; 14-15.

12 “And the ten horns which you saw are ten [minor] kings, which have received no kingdom as yet; but receive power as kings one hour [a short time] with the beast. 13 These have one mind, and shall give their power and strength to the beast [at that time].

                    [{7BC 983.5} 

What is it that gives its kingdom to this power?  Protestantism [as one of the ten], a power which, while professing to have the temper and spirit of a lamb and to be allied to Heaven, speaks with the voice of a dragon.  It is moved by a power from beneath [it is powered by the devil] (Letter 232, 1899).]   

                    [{7BC 983.6-7}

“These have one mind.” There will be a universal bond of union, one great harmony, a confederacy of Satan's forces.  “And shall give their power and strength unto the beast.”  Thus is manifested the same arbitrary, oppressive power against religious liberty, freedom to worship God according to the dictates of conscience, as was manifested by the papacy, when in the past it persecuted those who dared to refuse to conform with the religious rites and ceremonies of Romanism.   {7BC 983.6}

In the warfare to be waged in the last days there will be united, in opposition to God's people, all the corrupt powers that have apostatized from allegiance to the law of Jehovah.  In this warfare the Sabbath of the fourth commandment will be the great point at issue; for in the Sabbath commandment the great Lawgiver identifies Himself as the Creator of the heavens and the earth (MS 24, 1891).   {7BC 983.7}] 

14 “These shall make war with the Lamb [through the Sunday law], and the Lamb shall overcome them: for He is LORD of lords, and King of kings: and they that are with Him are called, and chosen, and faithful”.

15 And he said to me, “The waters which you saw, where the whore sits [it was formerly shown as sitting on a beast, verse 3], are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues [for they are one and the same].

16 “And the ten horns [the ten kings] which you saw upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and [eventually] burn her with fire. 17 For God has put in their hearts to fulfil His will, and to agree, and give their kingdom to the beast, until the words of God shall be fulfilled.

18 “And the woman which you saw is that great city, which reigns over the kings of the earth”.

Do you recognise this woman?



An extra thought:

The two time periods in the last chapter cannot be in “day/years” because of the fact that no prophecy of events to occur after 1844 is understandable in those terms. 

As literal days we are not told exactly when they commence, but it would appear to be at the instigation of the Sunday Law (in the United States)

. . . from the time that the daily . . . shall be taken away, and the abomination that makes desolate set up”.  They bring a blessing with them which will make them seem worthwhile in retrospect to those who endure them, but that cannot be said of the 1260 years of Papal persecution between 538 – 1798! 

That said, it appears that Gabriel is referring to an extra period of up to 45 days – 1 ˝ months of literal time (1260 days = 3 ˝ years plus the extras) after the law decree is passed, but he does not say clearly when it will begin.  But could it be in the “short space” between the 7th and the 8th heads?



Extra note:

Another pointer to the belief Satan had not instituted the rise of the second beast of Revelation 13 is the fact that it became the king of the north AND south for some time and this temporarily spoilt his plan of the two pincer movement.  But he soon recovered and set up his opposition religious group.   RETURN


 Appendix A:


Herod (/ˈhɛrəd/; Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס, Modern Hordos, Tiberian Hōrádōs, Greek: Ἡρῴδης, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – 4 BCE),[1][2][3][4][5] also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea,[6][7][8] referred to as the Herodian kingdom[He was established as king c.37BC.]

The history of his legacy has polarized opinion, as he is known for his colossal building projects throughout Judea, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (Herod's Temple), the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima, the fortress at Masada and Herodium.  Vital details of his life are recorded in the works of the 1st century CE Roman–Jewish historian Josephus

Herod also appears in the Christian Gospel of Matthew as the ruler of Judea who orders the Massacre of the Innocents at the time of the birth of Jesus

Despite his successes, including singlehandedly forging a new aristocracy from practically nothing,[9] he still garnered criticism from various historians.  His reign polarizes opinion amongst scholars and historians, some viewing his legacy as evidence of success, or a reminder of his tyrannical rule.

Upon Herod's death the Romans divided his kingdom among three of his sons and his sister — Archelaus became ethnarch [minor ruler] of the tetrarchy of Judea, Herod Antipas became tetrarch [an even smaller horn] of Galilee and Peraea, Philip became tetrarch of territories north and east of the Jordan, and Salome I [not the dancer] was given a toparchy including the cities of Jabneh, Ashdod, and Phasaelis.   RETURN



Appendix B:


The Bible is a compilation of many shorter books written at different times by a variety of authors, and later assembled into the biblical canon [the complete Bible].  

Since the early 13th century, most copies and editions of the Bible present all but the shortest of these books with divisions into chapters, generally a page or so in length.   Since the mid-16th century editors have further subdivided each chapter into verses - each consisting of a few short lines or sentences.   Sometimes a sentence spans more than one verse, as in the case of Ephesians 2:8–9, and sometimes there is more than one sentence in a single verse, as in the case of Genesis 1:2.



Where Verse and Chapter Numbers Came From

Chapter and verse numbers are such a familiar (and useful) part of Bible reading that we rarely give them much conscious thought.  In fact, verse numbers are so integral to the way we talk about Scripture that it’s hard to imagine the Bible without them.  But those numbers haven’t always been there.

The Old Testament has long been organized into sections and subsections; our modern chapter and verse divisions generally (but not always) correspond to the traditional Jewish organization of the text.  While the Old and New Testaments have been roughly organized at least since the Bible canon was established, it wasn’t until 1,000 years later that something resembling our modern chapter and verse system was widely accepted.

The person credited with dividing the Bible into chapters is Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1207-1228.  While Langton’s isn’t the only organizational scheme that was devised, it is his chapter breakdown that has survived.

But while chapters are a useful organizational tool, the ability to refer to specific phrases within those chapters would make the system even more usable.  Robert Stephanus (aka Robert Estienne) created a verse numbering system in the mid-16th century [c. 1551] and was the first person to print a Bible with verse numbers in each chapter.

The chapter and verse numbers we know and love today are direct descendants of these systems.  Different languages and versions of the Bible occasionally make use of alternate systems, but our current chapter/verse system is almost universally understood.   RETURN


Appendix C:

How I read the Bible

This is only MY way – the Spirit may lead you in another

 1)       First, I modernise the text, then I divide the KJV scripture into logical (to me) paragraphs.   This means a sentence or group of sentences (not too many) dealing with the same general subject, separating some to emphasise them. 

2)       Then I re-read each paragraph and add explanations, in brackets, of the meaning of any hard or obscure words, as I know them.

3)       I give each paragraph a heading or lead-in containing or illustrating its subject based on the words in that paragraph.

4)       Only then do I read the whole to understand, with the prayer that the Spirit will direct my mind.  

5)       I therefore ask Him to guide my mind to other scriptures (Bible or Spirit of Prophecy) which will expand or explain the one I are reading.  I do not use a dictionary or commentary to gain an understanding.   If necessary, I read before the study text and/or after it.   I take into account the subject of those verses for they will have some connection with the ones I am reading.

6)       If the sentence is a speech, I ask the Spirit who is talking, to whom the words are addressed, when it was said, where it was said, how it was spoken [i.e. under what emotion].  He then often leads me to another verse as an answer.

7)       If the paragraph describes an action, then I apply the same rule.   Who is it about, who was watching, when did it happen, where did it happen, why was it recorded, even who recorded it.   Either way, as I go I highlight some phrases or words to emphasise them.

8)       If necessary I use Google or Wikipedia to find a date or a name if it is required, (remembering that these are men’s ideas and are only approximate) so I do not rely on them as authorities.   Only the words of the Bible are completely trustworthy.   And I rarely, very rarely, use the words of the pioneers (the fathers) for their understandings, for, being men, their opinions are not infallible either.

I do not discount traditional SDA views, but these are held to one side as I probe the real meaning of the words I am reading.  Afterwards I sometimes find a variance between what is taught today (or even yesteryear) and what the scripture actually says!

9)       Occasionally I use an alternative translation which helps to explain the words of the text more clearly – for example – The Message version.   But I do not use them for explanations, for they are too often tainted with men’s opinions.

10)   Then I review, and review, and review .  .  .   especially in the morning when my head is the clearest.


Note:  In geometry men start with an idea, an hypothesis, then they prove that to be correct, or that they have “the right model” as it is often said today. And that is how many of us do our Bible reading today!  With a preconceived notion of what the word says.

 God’s way is the opposite, and does not need to be proved:  the statement in the Bible is right – we just have to learn what it means to us!

We just need to make sure that we only change under the Holy Spirit’s guidance.  RETURN





Appendix D:

The Roman Republic was based on slaves doing the work while the able-bodied citizens formed the armies which did the fighting. In return the citizens received a share of the riches (and the people) of the conquered countries.  So rewarding was this bounty that individuals and countries paid for the privilege of becoming citizens of the republic.

Acts 22:

24 The chief captain commanded him [Paul] to be brought into the castle, and bade that he should be examined by scourging [whipping]; that he might know wherefore they cried so against him. 25 And as they bound him with thongs, Paul said to the centurion that stood by, “Is it lawful for you to scourge a man that is a Roman, and uncondemned?” [You could be put to death for this!]

26 When the centurion heard that, he went and told the chief captain, saying, “Take heed what you do: for this man is a Roman”. 27 Then the chief captain came, and said to him, “Tell me, are you a Roman?”  He said, “Yes”.

28 And the chief captain answered, “With a great sum obtained I this freedom”.  And Paul said, “But I was free born”. [Although a Jew, Paul had been born in the city of Tarsus, a free city. Acts 21:39.]

29 Then straightway they departed from him [those] which should have examined him: and the chief captain also was afraid, after he knew that he was a Roman, and because he had bound him [without a trial].  


The Spirit has called our attention to the fact that the Roman Republic was not called by God or by Satan, but followed its own natural instinct, by adding the words, “according to his own will”.  RETURN





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[2] An abomination that makes desolate, is anything that is designed to look good and yet will cause the observer to die the second death!  The word “abomination” occurs 69 times in my Bible, but only twice regarding or causing desolation.  The first is in Daniel 11:31 and the last time here.  The first time for the word alone is in Genesis 43:32 and the last in Revelation 21:27.  But Proverbs 6:16-19 sums it all up.


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